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3. Implementation

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Strategic Planning Document -
National Security

3. Implementation

a. The National Security Implementation Environment

(1.) Policy Imperatives

Two important policy imperatives impacting our national security science and technology policy are:

Breaking down barriers between military and civilian sectors of the technology and industrial base. The Administration is taking new approaches designed to enhance "spin-on" mechanisms which allow the government to derive maximum benefit from advances in the commercial sector. The fundamental means for carrying out this new approach is cost-sharing partnerships between government and industry. All federal Research & Development agencies (including the nation's federal laboratories) are to act as partners with industry wherever possible. With partnerships, federal investments can be managed to the mutual benefit of both government and business. Partnerships can also ease the process of technology transfer between civilian and military sectors. Development of dual use technologies, processes, and products, to include the vital supporting technology and manufacturing infrastructure becomes a priority for national security science and technology. Not only does dual use development make good economic sense for the nation, it is a critical element in the drive to satisfy our military requirements at less expense. Ongoing acquisition reform initiatives are key to this policy imperative.

Balancing international cooperation with maintenance of U.S. technological advantage. With some exceptions, the U.S. has maintained a lead or parity in most advanced technology and manufacturing capabilities. In areas where we are not the leader, or where we can benefit from combining efforts, resources and talent, international cooperation provides a means to leverage foreign technologies. Cooperation, however, comes with the potential risk that we will find ourselves on a future battlefield opposed by a force with some equivalent technological capability. To balance international cooperation and technology transfer with the maintenance of technological superiority in those areas that are critical to our national and economic security, we must analyze the benefits and risks associated with each cooperation and transfer agreement.

(2.) Current and Emerging Societal Issues impacting the National Security Science and Technology Program

Science and technology investments both influence and are influenced by our values and priorities as a society. Many societal issues impact our national security science and technology program, including:

Competing National Interests. Multiple national priorities compete for limited resources.

Characterizing the Threat. Society's understanding of the significant threats to U.S. interests affects investment priorities.

Minimize Casualties and Damage. To minimize combatant and non-combatant casualties and collateral damage during military operations, the national security community has placed increased emphasis on science and technology programs that improve capabilities to identify friend from foe, enhance conflict prevention, provide non-lethal options, and produce high precision weapons.

Responsible Environmental Management. Science and technology investments must be made in the context of responsible stewardship and sustainment of natural resources and the environment. When making national security science and technology investments, we must consider all aspects of environmental management, including restoration, compliance with regulations, and stewardship.

Responsible Energy Management. U.S. national security requires access to efficient energy sources with minimum dependency upon unreliable foreign suppliers. Developing alternate energy sources has increased in importance.

(3.) External Input

The many federal agencies and departments each employ private sector advice in implementing the national security science and technology strategy. Private sector input to the national security science and technology agenda is drawn from a rich variety of sources and mechanisms. Formal mechanisms operate at the Presidential level, at the interagency level, and within federal agencies and departments. These mechanisms include commissioned panels and advisory boards, government participation in public symposia, interface with industry, and special studies.

These federal/private collaborations support the Administration's goals to serve commercial and defense technologies in parallel, and to the maximum extent practical, integrate the national security and commercial industrial bases. These merging industrial enterprises will be capable of developing and building more affordable products and enhancing US industrial economic competitiveness in global marketplace.

(4.) International Dimension

The technical agencies of the U.S. government also engage in a wide range of bilateral and multilateral international scientific programs that support their missions. International science and technology programs within the national security area can be classified into the following broad categories:

  • Collaborative science and technology programs with other countries in support of agency missions.

  • The New Independent States -- Industrial Partnering Program (NIS-IPP) that is conducted by Department of Energy in consultation with Department of State to redirect the expertise of scientists and engineers of the former Soviet Union from weapons-related activities to non-military applications of commercial value and mutual benefit.

  • Monitoring, reporting and information exchange activities aimed at identifying and exploiting technologies developed in other countries to avoid technological surprise.

  • Programs aimed at fostering stability by helping to address problems which are global in scope, such as excessive population growth, food scarcity, environmental degradation, and deteriorating health conditions.

The Committee on International Science, Engineering and Technology (CISET) of the National Science and Technology Council addresses issues in international scientific cooperation and issues that lie at the intersection of US foreign policy and the nation's research and development agenda. The CISET Strategic Implementation Plan articulates the goals and methods of that Committee and further elaborates on the international dimension of national security science and technology.

b. Areas of Focus

(1.) Introduction

Support Our National Military Strategy . The fundamental mission of national security science and technology is to support the ability of U.S. military forces to carry out our national military strategy. The National Military Strategy addresses the main dangers which threaten U.S. security interests, identifies national military objectives, determines the military tasks the military must accomplish to achieve these objectives, and examines the capabilities and forces required. The objective of national security science and technology is to develop and transition options for affordable, decisive military capability based on superior technology. The science and technology investments strive to: maintain technological superiority of US forces; provide the basis for new capabilities and new missions such as regional conflicts and countering the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction; enable force drawdown without loss in operational capability; develop the technological basis for force multipliers for use by smaller forces; achieve higher readiness through more efficient execution of training and ensuring an adequate science and technology infrastructure that capitalizes on technology innovation.

Highest priority is placed on science and technology investments that help maintain technological superiority in joint warfighting capabilities. The Joint Staff and JROC identified five future joint warfighting capabilities most needed by the U.S. Combatant Commands. Those needs, coupled with technological opportunity, guide national security science and technology investment decisions.

In the changing world order and given the broad implications of national security, the National Science and Technology Council has identified three other significant areas of focus for national security science and technology. These areas are intertwined with overlapping boundaries:

Science and Technology Applications to Post-Cold War Missions. In addition to supporting our core capability to win two nearly simultaneous major regional military operations, our national security technology investment needs to be applicable to military missions at the lower end of the operational spectrum that are growing in importance in the post-Cold War world.

Building International Stability and Preventing Conflict. We need to give increasing attention to our ability to prevent conflict before it requires the engagement of U.S. military forces. Science and technology cooperation plays an important role in this area.

Weapons of Mass Destruction. Technology plays a central role in efforts to ensure that we prevent the reemergence of the nuclear threat, counter the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and the means of their delivery, verify and monitor existing and new arms control agreements, and ensure the effectiveness of the smaller U.S. nuclear research and production capability.

The areas of focus are described in detail in section b.(3.) below.

(2.) Priority Mapping Methodology

The Committee for National Security identified science and technology priorities for each area of focus. Enabling capabilities needed to accomplish these priorities were then enumerated. Finally, the supporting technologies required to achieve the enabling capabilities were aggregated into Science and Technology Program Areas. See Figure 1. (Table A-1 in Appendix A depicts a summary representation of sample Supporting Technologies reviewed in Science and Technology Program Areas.)

Figure 1.

(3.) Focus Area Priorities and Enabling Capabilities

Support Our National Military Strategy. The National Military Strategy derives its overarching guidance from the President's National Security Strategy and is articulated by the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Table 1 summarizes the vital warfighting capabilities and enabling capabilities needed for national security.

The Department of Defense designated the following as high priority science and technology efforts in the Defense Technology Strategy, September 1994:

  • Information science and technology enables better performance of current platforms, weapons, sensors, and people. Information technologies are the basis for continual improvements in communications; intelligence gathering; analysis and distribution; battlefield situational awareness; command and control and sensor data processing.

  • Modeling and simulation holds the promise of broad applicability; the benefits are both cost reduction and new capability. This technology provides a fast, effective, and inexpensive means to prepare individuals and units for possible encounters or conflicts. Modeling and simulation can be applied to more than just training. It can be used during concept formulations to expand the range of technical, operational, and system alternatives evaluated. Simulations can be the basis for planning and decision aids to stretch the ability of commanders to train, to plan, and to employ their forces.

  • Sensors provide data about objects or physical phenomena of importance on the battlefield. To know, to know more, and to know it sooner than the enemy is a decisive advantage. The sensor technology program is broadly based; it exploits the full range of the electromagnetic spectrum. It will improve situational awareness, target acquisition, target identification and discrimination, and targeting.

Table 1. Enabling Capabilities for Supporting National Military Strategy

Maintain near perfect, real-time knowledge of the enemy and communicate that to all forces in near-real time:

  • Surveillance
  • Improved sensor resolution, dynamic range, and all-weather performance
  • UAV endurance, stealth and affordability
  • Assured, reliable identification of friend, foes and neutrals
  • Information management and communications
  • Interconnection of large numbers of diverse networks
  • Rapid reconfigurability of information systems
  • Information and information systems protection
  • Heterogeneous, distributed databases
  • Information management to match data to users
  • Secure, reliable wideband communications

Engage regional forces promptly in decisive combat, on a global basis:

  • Improved airlift and lighter forces
  • Assured, rapid neutralization of mines
  • Precision strike
  • Surveillance
  • Autonomous guidance and control
  • Enhanced lethality, particularly against buried and hardened targets
  • Deployable sensors
  • UAV
  • Remotely emplaced, unmanned sensors
  • Low observable aircraft technology (manned and unmanned)
  • Standoff, precision munitions

Employ capabilities suitable to lower end of operational spectrum that allow achievement of objectives with minimum casualties and collateral damage:

  • Improved intelligence and targeting
  • Near real time knowledge of the battle environment
  • Enhanced special operations capabilities
  • Clandestine infiltration
  • Comprehensive local surveillance
  • Tailored weapons (disable, disorient, confuse, neutralize temporarily)
  • Enhancement and protection of small units and individuals
  • Body armor
  • Counters to lasers, microwave weapons and NBC threats
  • Prompt medical trauma care and prevention of unique infectious diseases

Control the use of space:

  • Maintenance of uninterrupted access to information in space
  • Hardening/shielding
  • Communications agility
  • Electronic counter-countermeasures techniques
  • Precision sensing for identification of space objects

Counter the threat to CONUS and deployed forces of weapons of mass destruction and ballistic and cruise missiles:

  • Counters to aircraft, ballistic and cruise missiles, and standoff weapons
  • Effective lethal mechanisms against chemical and biological threats
  • Intercept capability in boost phase
  • Hard underground target defeat with low collateral effects
  • Underground structures detection and characterization
  • Enhance collection and analysis of intelligence
  • Detection and tracking of shipments and control and accountability for stocks of WMD-related materials and personnel
  • Real time detection and characterization of CW/BW agents including stand-off capability
  • Passive defense capabilities enabling military operations to continue in contaminated conditions-actual or threatened (low cost, lightweight)
  • Rapid production of protective BW vaccines
  • Detect and intercept low flying/stealthy aircraft and cruise missiles
  • Prompt mobile target kill

Science and Technology Applications to New Post-Cold War Missions. These mission areas are receiving special emphasis yet are derived from the broader national military strategy. Science and technology applications to new post-Cold War missions place special demands upon the national security strategy. There are four science and technology priority applications in this area of focus:

  • The Individual Warrior. The complexity of the post Cold War situation has increased the potential need for several, simultaneous, rapid response operations that will require superb performance from each member of the armed forces. Post-Cold War operations frequently preclude using large force structures. Therefore, science and technology programs that enhance the ability of the individual warrior (or small numbers of warriors) have especially high value. Examples include technologies that enhance situational awareness, individual performance, and those that protect personnel in hazardous environments.

  • Urban Environments. These new missions are often conducted in urban environments. Crowd element identification (friend, foe or neutral) and crowd control technologies are particularly important. Supporting technologies include programs such as persistent obscurants for urban terrain, high quantity sticky foams for closing urban passageways, and acoustic and electromagnetic weapons.

  • Information Management. This technology is particularly important to new post-Cold War operations. These missions often require highly specialized knowledge of individuals, decision-making systems, and local or geographical knowledge as well as locality-based data.

  • Remote Sensors. This is an especially pertinent specific agglomeration of the application of the above three priority applications, and thus has a unique levering capability for the new world. The ability to covertly place and link remote sensors and to detect movement and classify objects in accordance with their unique signatures greatly enhance operations in new post-Cold War missions. Autonomous sensors can form an undetectable electronic network capable of relaying intelligence that enhances abilities in many ways, including precision targeting in real-time.

There are nine broad categories of enabling capability important to carrying out new post-Cold War missions. These enabling capabilities are listed in Table 2.

Table 2. Enabling Capabilities for Science and technology Applications to Post-Cold War Missions*

Mobile Forces
Mission Planning
Improved training
Preventive Diplomacy
Intelligence Collection and Analysis
Conflict Resolution/Crisis Response
Offensive and Defensive Capabilities, including Surveillance
Global and Theater Command, Control, and Communication
Mobility Support (Including Logistics and Maintenance Support)

*Not listed in order of importance.

Building International Stability and Preventing Conflict. The strength of our military forces and the resolve to use them when necessary have a deterrent effect on those who might be tempted to challenge our interests. As an integral part of our national security strategy, science and technology contribute to promoting economic security, democracy, and sustainable development around the world. Certain capabilities that are primarily "warfighting" capabilities are also key to success in restoring stability or deterring conflict.

The following science and technology priorities apply to this focus area:

  • Intelligence and Surveillance. This priority area requires real-time, day/night, all weather intelligence gathering, embargo compliance monitoring technology, refugee movement monitoring technology, remotely installed sensors, and lightweight, mobile information gathering systems. (Note: federal science and technology investments for intelligence gathering for peace operations are captured under Science and Technology Applications to Post-Cold War Missions.)

  • Detection of Weapons of Mass Destruction. This priority area requires technology to help locate and identify weapons of mass destruction systems and their sub-elements, portable detection systems, detection of nuclear, chemical and biological materials while on the move, and near-real-time data transmission. (Note: federal science and technology investments involving weapons of mass destruction are captured under Weapons of Mass Destruction.)

  • Modeling, Simulation and Predictive Data Bases. This priority area requires technology to help provide advance warning of humanitarian crisis and predict the location and possible intensity of crisis, force and support tracking systems, information dissemination to forces and support systems, and access to real time data.

  • Non-Lethal Weapons. This priority area requires technology to help control crowds, disable or disrupt military logistics with minimum casualties, disrupt or disable communications, transportation and utilities, and destroy or disable conventional weapons and mass destruction weapons.

  • Mine Detection and Neutralization. This priority area requires technology to provide rapid, accurate mine detection and effective mine elimination equipment, especially for land mines and unexploded ordnance.

  • Water Supply and Purification. This priority area requires technology that can support water delivery from remote points of origin, portable water purification systems for central source (10,000 to 100,000 persons) or individual use, and purification kits for untrained or non-literate individuals.

  • Food Distribution and Preservation. This priority area requires technology to support food delivery from remote points of origin, secure methods of food delivery (for both recipients and food deliverers), regional food stockpiling, and transportation assets.

  • Waste Management. This priority area requires technology to support waste management and water supply protection during mass migrations, civilian supply pre-identification and stockpiling, epidemiological-chemical products and infrastructure equipment (supporting between 10,000 and 100,000 persons), and waste treatment kits for use by untrained, non-literate individuals.

The Committee on International Science, Engineering, and Technology is examining a series of science and technology efforts which can contribute to building stability and preventing conflict, including science and technology related to population growth, food and nutrition, infectious diseases, and others to be identified in the future.

The enabling capabilities important to achieving the science and technology priorities in this area of focus are listed in Table 3.

Table 3: Enabling Capabilities for Building International Stability and Preventing Conflict*

Control crowds
Access to real time data
Regional food stockpiling
Remotely installed sensors
Portable detection systems
Refugee movement monitoring
Rapid, accurate mine detection
Embargo compliance monitoring
Near-real-time data transmission
Force and support tracking systems
Advance warning of humanitarian crisis
Waste management during mass migrations
Prediction of location and intensity of crisis
Water supply protection during mass migrations
Civilian supply pre-identification and stockpiling
Lightweight, mobile information gathering systems
Food and water delivery from remote points of origin
Real-time, day/night, all weather intelligence gathering
Information dissemination to forces and support systems
Neutralization of combatants mixed with non-combatants
Disruption or disabling of communications, transportation, and utilities
Secure methods of food delivery (for both recipients and food deliverers)
Water supply and purification kits for untrained or nonliterate individuals
Waste treatment kits for use by untrained, non-literate individuals
Effective mine removal equipment (land mines and unexploded ordnance)
Destruction or disabling of conventional weapons and weapons of mass destruction
Portable water purification systems, central source or individual use (10,000 to 100,000 persons)
Disabling or disruption of military logistics with minimum casualties
Detection of nuclear, chemical and biological materials moving across borders, airports and seaports
Location and identification of weapons of mass destruction systems and their sub-elements
Epidemiological-chemical products and infrastructure equipment (10,000 to 100,000 persons)

*Not listed in order of importance.

Weapons of Mass Destruction. The President has identified countering the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their delivery systems as one of the most urgent priorities facing the nation. At least twenty countries -- many hostile to the United States and its allies -- have now or are seeking to develop the capability to produce nuclear, biological and/or chemical weapons of mass destruction and the means to deliver them. The Committee for National Security has identified the following science and technology priority areas for this area of focus.

  • Nonproliferation, Arms Control and Disarmament. Our arms control, nonproliferation, and counterproliferation programs are a critical component of our strategy to limit the spread of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons by: reducing incentives; enhancing predictability; reducing fear of aggressive intent; reducing the size of national defense industries establishments and permitting the growth of nonmilitary industries; ensuring confidence in compliance through effective monitoring and verification; and ultimately contributing to a more stable and calculable balance of power.

  • Detection, Monitoring and Verification. While it is critical that we have the ability to detect proliferant activities and to monitor, verify and implement international regimes and agreements which seek to prevent the proliferation of nuclear, chemical, biological and other advanced weapons, it is equally important that we also have technologies that provide adequate warning and indications of threats to U. S. national security, identify opportunities for advancing our interests and facilitate the direction of new efforts against proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.

  • Nuclear Stockpile Stewardship. With the current moratorium on underground nuclear testing, and intensive negotiations in progress on a verifiable Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, we must also ensure the safety, security, and reliability of the nuclear stockpile and competence of our core scientific personnel. These programs are fundamental to the retention of nuclear forces sufficient to deter any future hostile foreign leadership with access to nuclear forces. The unique role of the DoE in Nuclear Stockpile Stewardship entails maintaining and enhancing the fundamental scientific and technological understanding of nuclear weapons needed to predict, evaluate, and ensure the safety and reliability of the enduring nuclear stockpile without underground nuclear tests. This further requires enhanced experimental capabilities to support essential nuclear weapons testing without underground tests, improved computational simulations and predictive capabilities for nuclear weapons, advanced technologies for producing essential nuclear weapon materials, and development of the Factory of the Future for intermittent manufacturing of nuclear weapons components. Most important, it is also absolutely necessary to stabilize and sustain the full range of core scientific and advanced technological competencies (experts and facilities) required to maintain the safety and reliability of the stockpile and evaluate it from month to month and year to year.

Implementation (continued)

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National Security - Table of Contents

Executive Summary

1. The Vision

2. Strategy Elements

3. Implementation

3. Implementation - continued


Appendix A

Appendix B