3. Implementation

Strategic Planning Document -
National Security

3. Implementation

a. The National Security Implementation Environment

(1.) Policy Imperatives

Two important policy imperatives impacting our national security science and technology policy are:

Breaking down barriers between military and civilian sectors of the technology and industrial base. The Administration is taking new approaches designed to enhance "spin-on" mechanisms which allow the government to derive maximum benefit from advances in the commercial sector. The fundamental means for carrying out this new approach is cost-sharing partnerships between government and industry. All federal Research & Development agencies (including the nation's federal laboratories) are to act as partners with industry wherever possible. With partnerships, federal investments can be managed to the mutual benefit of both government and business. Partnerships can also ease the process of technology transfer between civilian and military sectors. Development of dual use technologies, processes, and products, to include the vital supporting technology and manufacturing infrastructure becomes a priority for national security science and technology. Not only does dual use development make good economic sense for the nation, it is a critical element in the drive to satisfy our military requirements at less expense. Ongoing acquisition reform initiatives are key to this policy imperative.

Balancing international cooperation with maintenance of U.S. technological advantage. With some exceptions, the U.S. has maintained a lead or parity in most advanced technology and manufacturing capabilities. In areas where we are not the leader, or where we can benefit from combining efforts, resources and talent, international cooperation provides a means to leverage foreign technologies. Cooperation, however, comes with the potential risk that we will find ourselves on a future battlefield opposed by a force with some equivalent technological capability. To balance international cooperation and technology transfer with the maintenance of technological superiority in those areas that are critical to our national and economic security, we must analyze the benefits and risks associated with each cooperation and transfer agreement.

(2.) Current and Emerging Societal Issues impacting the National Security Science and Technology Program

Science and technology investments both influence and are influenced by our values and priorities as a society. Many societal issues impact our national security science and technology program, including:

Competing National Interests. Multiple national priorities compete for limited resources.

Characterizing the Threat. Society's understanding of the significant threats to U.S. interests affects investment priorities.

Minimize Casualties and Damage. To minimize combatant and non-combatant casualties and collateral damage during military operations, the national security community has placed increased emphasis on science and technology programs that improve capabilities to identify friend from foe, enhance conflict prevention, provide non-lethal options, and produce high precision weapons.

Responsible Environmental Management. Science and technology investments must be made in the context of responsible stewardship and sustainment of natural resources and the environment. When making national security science and technology investments, we must consider all aspects of environmental management, including restoration, compliance with regulations, and stewardship.

Responsible Energy Management. U.S. national security requires access to efficient energy sources with minimum dependency upon unreliable foreign suppliers. Developing alternate energy sources has increased in importance.

(3.) External Input

The many federal agencies and departments each employ private sector advice in implementing the national security science and technology strategy. Private sector input to the national security science and technology agenda is drawn from a rich variety of sources and mechanisms. Formal mechanisms operate at the Presidential level, at the interagency level, and within federal agencies and departments. These mechanisms include commissioned panels and advisory boards, government participation in public symposia, interface with industry, and special studies.

These federal/private collaborations support the Administration's goals to serve commercial and defense technologies in parallel, and to the maximum extent practical, integrate the national security and commercial industrial bases. These merging industrial enterprises will be capable of developing and building more affordable products and enhancing US industrial economic competitiveness in global marketplace.

(4.) International Dimension

The technical agencies of the U.S. government also engage in a wide range of bilateral and multilateral international scientific programs that support their missions. International science and technology programs within the national security area can be classified into the following broad categories:

The Committee on International Science, Engineering and Technology (CISET) of the National Science and Technology Council addresses issues in international scientific cooperation and issues that lie at the intersection of US foreign policy and the nation's research and development agenda. The CISET Strategic Implementation Plan articulates the goals and methods of that Committee and further elaborates on the international dimension of national security science and technology.

b. Areas of Focus

(1.) Introduction

Support Our National Military Strategy . The fundamental mission of national security science and technology is to support the ability of U.S. military forces to carry out our national military strategy. The National Military Strategy addresses the main dangers which threaten U.S. security interests, identifies national military objectives, determines the military tasks the military must accomplish to achieve these objectives, and examines the capabilities and forces required. The objective of national security science and technology is to develop and transition options for affordable, decisive military capability based on superior technology. The science and technology investments strive to: maintain technological superiority of US forces; provide the basis for new capabilities and new missions such as regional conflicts and countering the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction; enable force drawdown without loss in operational capability; develop the technological basis for force multipliers for use by smaller forces; achieve higher readiness through more efficient execution of training and ensuring an adequate science and technology infrastructure that capitalizes on technology innovation.

Highest priority is placed on science and technology investments that help maintain technological superiority in joint warfighting capabilities. The Joint Staff and JROC identified five future joint warfighting capabilities most needed by the U.S. Combatant Commands. Those needs, coupled with technological opportunity, guide national security science and technology investment decisions.

In the changing world order and given the broad implications of national security, the National Science and Technology Council has identified three other significant areas of focus for national security science and technology. These areas are intertwined with overlapping boundaries:

Science and Technology Applications to Post-Cold War Missions. In addition to supporting our core capability to win two nearly simultaneous major regional military operations, our national security technology investment needs to be applicable to military missions at the lower end of the operational spectrum that are growing in importance in the post-Cold War world.

Building International Stability and Preventing Conflict. We need to give increasing attention to our ability to prevent conflict before it requires the engagement of U.S. military forces. Science and technology cooperation plays an important role in this area.

Weapons of Mass Destruction. Technology plays a central role in efforts to ensure that we prevent the reemergence of the nuclear threat, counter the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and the means of their delivery, verify and monitor existing and new arms control agreements, and ensure the effectiveness of the smaller U.S. nuclear research and production capability.

The areas of focus are described in detail in section b.(3.) below.

(2.) Priority Mapping Methodology

The Committee for National Security identified science and technology priorities for each area of focus. Enabling capabilities needed to accomplish these priorities were then enumerated. Finally, the supporting technologies required to achieve the enabling capabilities were aggregated into Science and Technology Program Areas. See Figure 1. (Table A-1 in Appendix A depicts a summary representation of sample Supporting Technologies reviewed in Science and Technology Program Areas.)

Figure 1.

(3.) Focus Area Priorities and Enabling Capabilities

Support Our National Military Strategy. The National Military Strategy derives its overarching guidance from the President's National Security Strategy and is articulated by the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Table 1 summarizes the vital warfighting capabilities and enabling capabilities needed for national security.

The Department of Defense designated the following as high priority science and technology efforts in the Defense Technology Strategy, September 1994:

Table 1. Enabling Capabilities for Supporting National Military Strategy

Maintain near perfect, real-time knowledge of the enemy and communicate that to all forces in near-real time:

Engage regional forces promptly in decisive combat, on a global basis:

Employ capabilities suitable to lower end of operational spectrum that allow achievement of objectives with minimum casualties and collateral damage:

Control the use of space:

Counter the threat to CONUS and deployed forces of weapons of mass destruction and ballistic and cruise missiles:

Science and Technology Applications to New Post-Cold War Missions. These mission areas are receiving special emphasis yet are derived from the broader national military strategy. Science and technology applications to new post-Cold War missions place special demands upon the national security strategy. There are four science and technology priority applications in this area of focus:

There are nine broad categories of enabling capability important to carrying out new post-Cold War missions. These enabling capabilities are listed in Table 2.

Table 2. Enabling Capabilities for Science and technology Applications to Post-Cold War Missions*

Mobile Forces
Mission Planning
Improved training
Preventive Diplomacy
Intelligence Collection and Analysis
Conflict Resolution/Crisis Response
Offensive and Defensive Capabilities, including Surveillance
Global and Theater Command, Control, and Communication
Mobility Support (Including Logistics and Maintenance Support)

*Not listed in order of importance.

Building International Stability and Preventing Conflict. The strength of our military forces and the resolve to use them when necessary have a deterrent effect on those who might be tempted to challenge our interests. As an integral part of our national security strategy, science and technology contribute to promoting economic security, democracy, and sustainable development around the world. Certain capabilities that are primarily "warfighting" capabilities are also key to success in restoring stability or deterring conflict.

The following science and technology priorities apply to this focus area:

The Committee on International Science, Engineering, and Technology is examining a series of science and technology efforts which can contribute to building stability and preventing conflict, including science and technology related to population growth, food and nutrition, infectious diseases, and others to be identified in the future.

The enabling capabilities important to achieving the science and technology priorities in this area of focus are listed in Table 3.

Table 3: Enabling Capabilities for Building International Stability and Preventing Conflict*

Control crowds
Access to real time data
Regional food stockpiling
Remotely installed sensors
Portable detection systems
Refugee movement monitoring
Rapid, accurate mine detection
Embargo compliance monitoring
Near-real-time data transmission
Force and support tracking systems
Advance warning of humanitarian crisis
Waste management during mass migrations
Prediction of location and intensity of crisis
Water supply protection during mass migrations
Civilian supply pre-identification and stockpiling
Lightweight, mobile information gathering systems
Food and water delivery from remote points of origin
Real-time, day/night, all weather intelligence gathering
Information dissemination to forces and support systems
Neutralization of combatants mixed with non-combatants
Disruption or disabling of communications, transportation, and utilities
Secure methods of food delivery (for both recipients and food deliverers)
Water supply and purification kits for untrained or nonliterate individuals
Waste treatment kits for use by untrained, non-literate individuals
Effective mine removal equipment (land mines and unexploded ordnance)
Destruction or disabling of conventional weapons and weapons of mass destruction
Portable water purification systems, central source or individual use (10,000 to 100,000 persons)
Disabling or disruption of military logistics with minimum casualties
Detection of nuclear, chemical and biological materials moving across borders, airports and seaports
Location and identification of weapons of mass destruction systems and their sub-elements
Epidemiological-chemical products and infrastructure equipment (10,000 to 100,000 persons)

*Not listed in order of importance.

Weapons of Mass Destruction. The President has identified countering the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their delivery systems as one of the most urgent priorities facing the nation. At least twenty countries -- many hostile to the United States and its allies -- have now or are seeking to develop the capability to produce nuclear, biological and/or chemical weapons of mass destruction and the means to deliver them. The Committee for National Security has identified the following science and technology priority areas for this area of focus.

Implementation (continued)

National Security - Table of Contents

Executive Summary

1. The Vision

2. Strategy Elements

3. Implementation

3. Implementation - continued


Appendix A

Appendix B

President and First Lady | Vice President and Mrs. Gore
Record of Progress | The Briefing Room
Gateway to Government | Contacting the White House | White House for Kids
White House History | White House Tours | Help
Privacy Statement


Site Map

Graphic Version

T H E   W H I T E   H O U S E