National Science and Technology Council
(November 1993--September 1995)
GOAL 1: COORDINATE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY ACROSS THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT
- Created a "virtual agency"of nine goal-oriented Research and
Development (R&D) Committees to establish priorities that cross-cut
multiple agencies' purview:
- - Health, Safety, and Food
- - National Security
- - Information and Communication
- - Civilian Industrial Technology
- - International Science, Engineering, and Technology
- - Environment and Natural Resources
- - Transportation R&D
- - Education and Training
- - Fundamental Science
- Facilitated Federal Government-wide development of Strategic
Planning Documents that articulate S&T goals and include
- Developed the first integrated R&D budget to focus on national
S&T goals, utilizing priorities established by each NSTC Committee.
- Implemented R&D programs on an interagency coordinated
basis, to derive the benefits of shared resources and to eliminate
- Collaborated with stakeholders by using national and regional
forums and soliciting input of the President's Committee of Advisors
on Science and Technology (PCAST).
- - "Conference on Human Health and Climate Change" in September 1995.
- - "America in the Age of Information: A Forum on Federal
Information and Communications R&D" in July 1995.
- - "Making it Happen: First in the World in Science and
Mathematics Education" Forum in July 1995.
- - "Science in the National Interest Regional Fora" in
Massachusetts, Florida, Texas and California in the
- - Colloquium on "Assessing the Contribution of Fundamental
Science" in May 1995.
- - "Future Directions in Transportation R&D" Forum in
- - "The Role of Science and Technology in Promoting National
Security and Global Stability" Forum in March 1995.
- - White House Conference on Environmental Technology
in December 1994.
- - "Meeting the Challenge: Health, Safety and Food for
America" Forum in November 1994.
- - "Environment and Natural Resources R&D" Forum in
- - Science in the National Interest Forum in January 1994.
- Launched cost sharing partnerships with critical industries:
- - Building and Construction Initiative: Government-Industry
partnership to achieve a 50 percent reduction in delivery time,
operations, maintenance and energy costs; a 30 percent
improvement in productivity and comfort; 50 percent fewer
occupant-related and construction work injuries and illnesses;
50 percent less waste and pollution; and 50 percent more durability
and flexibility in new construction--all by the year 2003.
- - Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles: To develop a
vehicle with three times the fuel efficiency at no sacrifice in
cost, comfort or safety within 10 years.
- - National Electronics Manufacturing Initiative: A public-private
partnership focused on leveraging limited resources in
electronics manufacturing of electronic information products that
connect to information networks in support of sustained national
security and economic growth.
- - National Environmental Technology Strategy: A national
strategy developed with industry, academia, non-governmental
organizations, and state and local governments to support the
development and deployment of environmental
technologies, both here and abroad.
- - Materials Technology Partnership: Combined efforts of universities,
industry, and government to enable development and rapid
commercialization of many advanced materials, thereby assisting
the Nation in meeting the rapidly changing demands of society and
industry, while facilitating economic growth
and safeguarding national security.
- Additional specific accomplishments include:
- - Devised a Landsat Remote Sensing Strategy that assures the
future continuity of this important environmental data, minimizes
operating costs, and promotes private sector commercial opportunities.
- - Created an Environmental Technology Strategy: In cooperation with
industry, announced a new long term, environmental technology
strategy on Earth Day 1995 that fosters economic growth and
creates jobs, while improving and sustaining the environment through
the innovative use of environmental technologies. The strategy
focuses on anticipating and avoiding environmental damage, rather
than reacting to environmental damage, and on increasing overall
private sector productivity through environmental technologies
and practices that significantly reduce the use of energy and materials.
- - Identified cross-cutting ecosystem research needs and
developed an integrated, interagency strategy for ecosystem research,
monitoring and assessment. This strategy is being used to set
interagency priorities for ecosystem research, and is guiding efforts
to better coordinate ecological monitoring and assessment activities
within Federal agencies.
- - Coordinated Federal agency earthquake research and
mitigation effort to more fully utilize existing data.
- - Collaborated with industry, academia, and Federal agencies to
define Administration's vision and goals for future Federal
investments in aeronautics and aviation research and technology to
ensure superiority of U.S. aircraft and engines; improve safety,
efficiency, and cost effectiveness of the global air transportation
system; and long-term environmental compatibility of the aviation
system, as reflected in Goals for a National Partnership in Aeronautics
Research and Technology.
- - Initiated space policy review to eliminate duplication and
increase collaboration among agencies.
- - Initiated Global Positioning System (GPS) policy review to
recommend national policy on the future management and use of GPS,
while considering national security, economic policy and foreign
- - Developed an Administration policy statement, Science in the
National Interest, that calls for improving our investment in
fundamental science, and stresses the importance of science in
our Nation's progress and future economic growth.
- - Enhanced utilization of peer review to determine merit of
programs in fundamental science.
- - Increased access of university, government and industry
research scientists to Federal facilities and helped preserve
U.S. leadership in S&T by developing a successful $100 million
"User Facility Initiative".
- - Recommended regulatory reforms to the Vice President
affecting university research and biotechnology.
- - Revised OMB Circular A-21, "Cost Principles for Educational
Institutions" to fund the best science at the lowest cost,
while providing accountability for Federal funds and enhancing
consistency in university accounting practices.
- - Formed the Interagency Learning Technology Office (ILTO) to
initiate and support focused collaborations of the technology agencies
with the Departments of Education and Labor and with the private
sector. This collaboration will create and demonstrate learning
technologies for the 21st century and encourage the use of
technology in all Federal education and training programs.
- - In March 1995, the Vice President challenged communities of
schools, colleges, libraries, museums, and businesses across the Nation
to jointly transform factory era schools into information age learning
centers. Over 500 community consortia responded to this challenge--at
least one from every state--with 19 Challenge Grants awarded in
- - Chartered Presidential Advisory Committee on Gulf War
Veterans' Illnesses to ensure all possible efforts are exerted to
determine the causes of the illnesses reported by Gulf War veterans.
- - Coordinated Federal programs for more effective response to
emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases.
- - Strengthened investment in health research by targeting $500
million of budget increases for health priorities, including HIV/AIDS,
breast cancer and women's health prevention, brain disorders,
environmental cancer, and gene therapy.
- - Established a National Bioethics Advisory Commission to
consider bioethical issues arising from research on human biology and
behavior, and the applications of such research.
- - Encouraged and supported the broad program of S&T
investments designed to preserve the essential technical base
needed to maintain a safe and reliable nuclear weapons stockpile in
the absence of nuclear testing, making possible the President's
goal of a true zero-yield Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.
- - Developed the country's first National Security Science and
Technology Strategy. The strategy describes a coherent policy for
applying S&T to our national security goals, identifying priority
investments in support of military capability, verifiable
arms control, sustainable development abroad, and economic
performance at home.
- - Developed an extensive and proactive plan to strengthen
national and international surveillance of and response to
emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, e.g.,
tuberculosis, Ebola virus, and AIDS.
- - PCAST identified, in collaboration with NSTC and with
international input, a technically sound scheme for
restructuring the U.S. fusion program, at a substantially reduced
level of funding, underscoring the importance of fusion as an
attractive--possibly essential--energy source and the need for
international collaboration for demonstrating practical fusion energy.
- - Developed Country Science and Technology Strategies for
China and South Africa which describe priorities for cooperative
relations in S&T by identifying areas of mutual benefit and
presenting a coordinated U.S. position.
- - Developed an S&T initiative for inclusion in the Agenda of the
December 1994 Summit of the Americas. The plan of action
resulting from the Summit calls for a meeting of S&T ministers to
assess ongoing programs, consider ways to improve S&T interactions in
the hemisphere, and explore the possibility of establishing a
council on science and technology.
- - Encouraged and led the creation of a follow-on mechanism to
the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
Megascience Forum. The Megascience Forum supports international
collaboration on large and/or sophisticated science
projects as a way to gain new scientific and technological
advances in a cost effective manner.
Information and Communication
- - Improved coordination of 12 agency, annual $1 billion High
Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) Program that supports
the information superhighway.
- - Seeded Internet with HPCC funds, enabling ready access to
high performance computers and advanced scientific instruments,
introducing independence of geographic location capability.
- - Provided researchers with new scalable systems and high
performance computer resources, enabling R&D discoveries and
demonstration of new capabilities that were not possible with
earlier technologies, i.e., improved atmospheric
weather modeling, new air and water quality models,
improved design and manufacture of goods, and increased energy
efficiency of cars and airplanes.
- - Trained thousands of teachers and students on accessing HPCC
GOAL 2: MAKE GOVERNMENT MORE EFFECTIVE AND COST LESS
- High rate of return to investments in fundamental science.
- Identified and implemented significant science and technology
regulatory reforms affecting university research and biotechnology.
- Instituted reviews that improved efficiency and reduced the
operating costs of the three largest Federal Laboratory
DOD, and NASA--while ensuring they effectively serve national needs in
national security, fundamental science, industrial technologies,
environmental protection, and aerospace.
- Developed a National Space Transportation Policy that will
assure reliable and affordable access to space, while reducing
operating costs; encourage cost-effective use of commercially
provided U.S. products and services; and take advantage of foreign
capabilities without creating U.S. dependence.
- Coordinated White House efforts in support of NASA's redesign
of the space station. The redesign improved performance and
safety, accelerated the final assembly complete schedule by 15
months, increased the space station's relevance to today's
economic and political climate by partnering with Russia, and
decreased life cycle cost by almost $20 billion.
- Converged U.S.-Polar-Orbiting Weather/Environmental Satellite Systems,
reducing unnecessary duplication of systems, encouraging international
cooperation, and saving the American taxpayer hundreds of millions of
dollars by the turn of the century.
- Chartered State-Federal Technology Partnership Task Force
that recommended ways of strengthening American S&T through better
cooperation between the States and the Federal Government, with
emphasis on the economic benefits of cooperation.
- Recognized, documented and promoted the concept of S&T as
- Technology as the engine of economic competitiveness and
growth, produces good jobs.
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