Population and Consumption: Endnotes


[1] References are contained in the Bibliographic Essay Section of this Report.

[2] The "total fertility rate," or TFR, is the demographic measure that most vividly captures family size. It is the average number of children per woman. U.S. TFR in 1995 was 2.0.

[3] These circumstances are governed by the Hyde Amendment, first implemented in 1978. Between 1981 and 1993, a Medicaid-funded abortion was available only if a woman's life was in danger; since October 1993, the circumstances had been expanded to cover pregnancies resulting from rape or incest.

[4] The Population and Consumption Task Force has chosen to focus on certain materials issues and has not examined energy in detail. The Energy and Transportation Task Force of the PCSD has the mandate to study energy issues. Also, since the oil shocks of the 1970s, a great deal of work on energy has improved understanding of the numbers and concepts, fleshed out policy recommendations and their likely economic and social impacts, and even allowed experiments with various policy instruments. In contrast, understanding of materials issues is perhaps 20 years behind the understanding of energy issues and is underrepresented in conversations about sustainable development. Thus, the Task Force has looked with some emphasis on materials issues in the course of its deliberations.

Table of Contents | Bibliographic Essay

Population and Consumption: Endnotes

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