ENTEBBE SUMMIT FOR PEACE AND PROSPERITY
Joint Declaration of Principles
The Entebbe Summit of Heads of State and Government
At the joint invitation of H.E. President Yoweri Kaguta Museveni of the Republic of Uganda and H.E. President William Jefferson Clinton of the United States of America, their excellencies Mr. Daniel T. arap Moi, President of the Republic of Kenya, Mr. Pasteur Bizimungu, President of the Republic of Rwanda, Mr. Benjamin William Mkapa, President of the United Republic of Tanzania, Mr. laurent Desire Kabile, President of the Democratic Republic of Congo, Mr. Meles Zenawi, Prime Minister of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, and Mr. Salim Ahmed Salim, Secretary-General of the Organization of African Unity, met on Wednesday 25 March, 1998 at Entebbe, Uganda.
The exchange of views between the African leaders and the President of the UnitedStates marks a new beginning, launching a process of defining and building a U.S.- Africapartnership for the 21st Century. The Heads of State and Government reaffirm thehistorical bonds between the people of America and Africa. We pledge to deepen these tiesthrough a lasting partnership rooted in common values and recognition of ourinterdependence, and built upon mutual respect and the sovereign equality of nations. TheLeaders commit themselves to honor and execute agreements mutually concluded by all theparties to rigorously pursue Africa's economic growth and transformation, and fullintegration into the global economy.
Putting Partnership into Practice:
The Heads of State and Government recognize that to effect this new, genuine andtransparent partnership, there is a need to commit ourselves to the identification andacknowledgement of both our mutual and divergent interests, the pursuit of free and frankdiscussions, and a clear understanding of the roles and responsibilities of each partner.
A Partnership Built on Principle and a Shared Vision:
The Heads of State and Government recognize that a lasting partnership must be built onthe principles of shared ownership, joint responsibility, and full transparency.
The Heads of State and Government further acknowledge a shared vital interest inlong-term meaningful engagement. We affirm that Africa and the United States hold a mutualinterest: in fostering Africa's economic and political transformation and fullintegration into the global economy, and in promoting democratic participation and respectfor human rights. We affirm that social, economic and political inclusion is thefoundation for lasting peace and stability. The Leaders declare that African and Americansecurity interests alike will be advanced by a joint attack on the transnational problemsof terrorism, disease, proliferation of weapons, drug trafficking and environmentaldegradation.
On Building a New Economic Future:
Recognizing that Africa's stability, and democracy's viability, are rooted inthe alleviation of poverty and the achievement of sustainable economic development, theHeads of State and Government commit themselves to a series of measures designed to speedAfrica's transformation and full integration into the global economy, and to expandmutually beneficial trade and investment opportunities:
The Leaders commit themselves to fostering an expanded African and internationaldialogue, aimed at defining strategies to facilitate Africa's global integration thatare as flexible and creative as those applied to post-war Europe and Asia;
The Heads of State and Government reaffirm the importance of Inter-GovernmentalAuthority on Development and East African Cooperation initiatives to facilitate regionaleconomic integration and create a larger regional market, and commit themselves toidentifying ways and means to accelerate these and other efforts;
Endorsing the conclusions of the World Bank Summit convened in Kampala in January 1998,the Leaders agree to target their own efforts in four critical areas, and to encourage themultilateral institutions to also fully support:
the development of a sustained international dialogue, based on mutual respect, on howto ensure that mandated economic reform programs reflect the specific circumstances ofindividual countries;
the expansion of external resource flows, directed, in particular, at human resourcedevelopment, infrastructure, rural development and research;
increased investment in the physical infrastructure required to sustain regional tradeand integration;
building African capacity to lead the economic reform process through transparent andaccountable political and economic institutions.
The United States affirms the priority it attaches to speedy implementation ofPresident Clinton's Partnership for Economic Growth and the enactment of the AfricanGrowth and Opportunity Act, legislation that will permit broader market access for Africangoods;
The Heads of State and Government affirm the African Growth and Opportunity Act as amajor step forward in U.S.- African economic relations, but acknowledge that this effortto provide greater market access for African goods must be complemented by efforts toincrease African capacity to diversify economies and produce exportable goods;
The Heads of State and Government pledge to work together to explore ways and means ofensuring that this Act, and other measures including but not limited to initiatives of themultilateral financial institutions, reflect and build upon the diversity, in bothcircumstances and approach, of Africa's national economies;
The Heads of State and Government also emphasize the critical need to furtherstrengthen, in particular, agricultural production and processing, including through thetransfer of technologies;
The Heads of State and Government welcome the decision of the U.S. Overseas PrivateInvestment Corporation (OPIC), to target $500 million for infrastructure investment inSub-Saharan African.
In the interest of further expanding U.S. private investment in the region and acrossAfrica, the Heads of State and Government are committed to undertaking concrete measuresaimed at promoting African investment opportunities, and to building African capacity tofurther enhance the economic policy environment;
In recognition of the African desire for increased self-sufficiency and the dangers ofaid dependency, the Heads of State and Government agree that an accelerated effort shouldbe made to use foreign assistance as a tool for the enhancement of trade, investment andcapital formation, as well as for sustainable economic development;
The Heads of State and Government recognize the continuing obstacle that the debtburden poses to Africa's economic transformation, and reaffirm their collectivedetermination to fully implement innovative approaches to the management and lessening ofthe debt burden;
The Heads of State and Government commend ongoing African efforts, as well as those ofAfrica's partners, to increase transparency, fight corruption, and support betterbusiness practices, and welcome regional and continental efforts to further these aims.
On Condemnation of Acts of Genocide
The Heads of State and Government recognize the accomplishment of the Government ofRwanda in halting the 1994 genocide, condemn all acts of genocide and pledge to undertakea concerted effort to prevent its resurgence. To this end:
All Heads of State and Government condemn the continued atrocities of the ex-FAR, theInterahamwe and their allies, pledge to work together to prohibit future atrocities in theGreat Lakes region, including those aided and abetted by external arms suppliers, call forthe revitalization and expansion of the UN Arms Flow Commission, and are committed topublicize and duly consider its findings;
African Heads of State and Government pledge to deny extremist networks the use oftheir territory, postal services, airports, financial institutions, passports, roadnetworks, and communications systems. The Summit calls upon all states to implement tightcontrols over these networks abroad;
All Heads of State and Government pledge to support the efforts of the OAU EminentPersonalities Study of the Rwanda Genocide and the Surrounding Events, and to dulyconsider its findings and recommendations;
The United States commits itself to working with regional partners and others to beginexploring, within one month's time, the creation of an international CoalitionAgainst Genocide, the aims of which might include: fostering international coordination insupport of regional efforts to enforce anti-genocide measures; providing a forum forhigh-level deliberations on long-term efforts to prevent genocide in the future; andensuring international support for the findings of the OAU Study;
The Heads of State and Government commend the Government of Rwanda for its efforts torender justice for the victims of the genocide and to prevent acts of revenge. We callupon the international community to redouble its efforts to work with the Government ofRwanda to achieve these goals;
The Heads of State and Government recognize recent progress made by the InternationalCriminal Tribunal for Rwanda, but express their concern about the slow pace with which theTribunal's work has proceeded, urge the ICTR to do everything within its power toaccelerate the processing of its cases, and call on all nations to cooperate fully andexpeditiously with the Tribunal;
The Heads of State and Government affirm that the restoration of regional peace andstability requires an end to the culture of impunity and the restoration of the rule oflaw, and pledge their best efforts to strengthening national systems of civilian andmilitary justice. The United States commits itself through the Great Lakes JusticeInitiative, to an expanded effort to help the public and private sectors in Rwanda,Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo develop justice systems that are impartial,credible, and effective, and to support efforts to promote inclusion, coexistence,cooperation and security;
On Fostering Democratic Participation, Human Rights and Regional Stability:
The Heads of State and Government affirm that the destiny and security of Africa restprimarily in the hands of Africans themselves. The Leaders pledge to seek additionalresources and, in consultation with the OAU and UN, to build upon ongoing efforts, bothregionally and internationally, to strengthen and sustain regional security and Africanpeacekeeping capacity. The Leaders condemn, and pledge continued cooperative efforts toresist, all forms of cross-border terrorism directed against civilians.
Recognizing that the stability of the region also depends on the sustainability ofAfrican democratization, the Heads of State and Government endorse the core principles ofinclusion, the rule of law, respect for human rights, the equality of all men and women,and the right of citizens to regularly elect their leaders freely and to participate fullyin the decision-making which affects them. Further:
The Heads of State and Government pledge to pursue a dialogue on democratization that:accepts these core principles; recognizes that there is no fixed model for democraticinstitutions or transformation; explores alternative approaches to the democraticmanagement of cultural diversity; and takes into account differences in historicalexperience;
The Heads of State and Government recognize the central role of freely-electedgovernments in leading Africa's economic and political transformation, the need toensure that those governments attain the capacity to lead effectively and transparently,and the need to foster a healthy and mutually-accountable relationship between electedgovernments and a vibrant and responsible civil society;
The Heads of State and Government affirm the vital role national organizations of civilsociety can play in easing the transition from conflict and authoritarian rule toparticipatory democracy, and in contributing to the region's social, political andeconomic development;
Recognizing the critical roles local and national institutions of government play inproviding a foundation for democracy, the Heads of State and Government urge all concernedthat increased emphasis be given to building the capacity of these institutions;
The Heads of State and Government underscore a shared commitment to respect for humanrights, as articulated in the UN Declaration of Human Rights and the African Charter onHuman and People's Rights;
The Heads of State and Government urge the international community to take note of thelessons learned from the region's tragic past. We pledge to uphold humanitarianprinciples, including the right of civilians to assistance in situations of conflict, andthe protection of refugees and non-combatants. We call on the international community andhost countries to prevent any future delivery of humanitarian assistance to armedcombatants; to work to insure that refugees are not subjected to political intimidation;and to work closely with regional actors, both governmental and non-governmental, toinsure access by humanitarian providers to all populations in need;
The Heads of State and Government applaud the commitment and effort made by the OAUMechanism for Conflict Prevention, Management and Resolution, and by emerging sub-regionalbodies, such as the Inter-Governmental Authority on Development, to foster African-ledapproaches to conflict prevention, management and resolution and pledge to work towardsbuilding further international support for these efforts.
On Pursuing the Partnership into the Future:
The Heads of State and Government unanimously agree to explore mechanisms for regularconsultations and encounters at the highest level between African and U.S. leaders. Notingthe importance of mutual understanding between African and American citizens, we call forexpanded cultural and educational exchanges.
The African leaders noted with appreciation President Clinton's historic visit toAfrica and express the hope that his presence on the continent has opened a new chapter inAfrica-U.S. relations. The Heads of State and Government recognize that the development ofa lasting partnership, characterized by shared ownership and meaningful engagement, willrequire commitment, time and patience. The Leaders commit themselves to pursue thisobjective in the spirit of mutual respect, to deepen a frank and honest dialogue, toevaluate jointly progress made in the months ahead, and to secure a meaningful and lastingpartnership for the 21st Century.
The President of the U.S.A. and the African Heads of State and Government express deepappreciation to President Yoweri Kaguta Museveni, the Government and the people of Ugandafor the warm hospitality accorded to them during their visit to Uganda.
Done at Entebbe, Uganda on Wednesday 25th March, 1998.
WILLIAM JEFFERSON CLINTON,
PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES
YOWERI KAGUTA MUSEVENI,
PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF UGANDA
DANIEL T. arap MOI,
PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF KENYA
PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF RWANDA
BENJAMIN WILLIAM MKAPA,
PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA
LAURENT DESIRE KABILA,
PRESIDENT OF THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO
PRIME MINISTER OF THE FEDERAL DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF ETHIOPIA
ENTEBBE, UGANDA 25 MARCH, 1998