CONFLICT PREVENTION AND RESOLUTION IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
U.S. efforts to support conflict prevention and resolution in Africa includesimproving: the capabilities of the Organization of African Unity (OAU); the capability ofsub-regional organizations; the capability of non-governmental organizations (NGOs);supporting African demobilization and retraining; and training Africans in conflictresolution, prevention, management and peacekeeping.
The U.S. Government has provided more than $10 million to the OAU over the last fiveyears to support institutional conflict resolution capabilities. Specifically, the UnitedStates funded the construction of the Conflict Management Center in Addis that willmonitor and manage potential conflicts and the prepositioning of equipment for a 100-troopquick-reaction military observer force to be deployed anywhere in Africa on short notice.Recently, the United States provided funding for military observers in Comoros and plansto sponsor a test in March 1998 of the Center's conflict management capabilities.
Recognizing the potentially stabilizing role sub-regional organizations can play, theUnited States supported the Intergovernmental Authority on Development in the Horn ofAfrica, recently provided $30 million in assistance to ECOMOG, the peacekeeping mission ofthe Economic Community of West African States, in support of its activities to fosterpeace and support the election process in Liberia and is encouraging security cooperationwithin the Southern African Development Community to pursue efforts to improve regionalintegration. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) also providesassistance through a sub-regional Sahelian organization -- the permanent Inter-StateCommittee on Drought Control in the Sahel -- to help defuse potential local conflicts.
The United States has provided training and funding to NGOs engaged in mediation andreconciliation efforts throughout the continent. Specifically, the United States supportedthe establishment of a radio station in Burundi to defuse a volatile situation, conflictresolution activities by the Carter Center, and various democracy education centers andestablish regional hubs the Democratic Republic of the Congo to assist in grass rootsinstitutions pursue democratic policies.
The United States is currently engaged in demobilization and reintegration efforts in12 countries in Africa, most notably Angola.
Conflict prevention is a major focus of the President's Greater Horn of Africa andGreat Lakes Justice Initiatives. The Department of Defense provides the bulk of trainingin peacekeeping skills through the International Military Education and Training program.The U.S. Information Agency provides conflict resolution training through itsInternational Visitor Program and USAID primarily through NGOs and international entities.
The United States currently is implementing the African Crisis Response Initiative(ACRI) -- a training partnership among African and non-African countries. The ACRI willenhance African peacekeeping and conflict resolution capabilities.