MONDAY, NOVEMBER 15
The President, the First Lady, Secretary of State Madeleine Albright, and U.S. Ambassador to Turkey Mark Parris will each give brief remarks to the embassy staff.
The President will lead a wreath-laying ceremony at Anitkabir. The ceremony pays homage to Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, the founder of Turkey's modern, secular republic, and is traditional for all Heads of State visiting Ankara.
The Turkish people created the idea of a mausoleum to Ataturk as a place to honor the man who had led the independence war and created a modern nation out of the ashes of the Ottoman Empire. Anitkabir covers some 700,000 square meters of high land in the Maltepe area of Ankara. Anitkabir's Peace Park contains plants from all areas of Turkey and the world. The mausoleum was designed by Turkish architect Emin Onat and was completed in 1953, fifteen years after Ataturk's death. Although many Americans see in it echoes of our own Lincoln Memorial, the layout, structure, and decoration are evocative of several Anatolian civilizations.
The President will begin the wreath-laying ceremony by ascending a set of stairs. At the top of the stairs, a Turkish flag flies on an American flagpole constructed specifically for Anitkabir. The flagpole is the longest single-piece flagpole in Europe. Symbolic relief work is at the base: a torch of civilization, a sword of attack, a helmet of defense, an oak branch of victory, and an olive branch of peace.
The President will lay the wreath at the foot of Ataturk's tomb, assisted by two Turkish honor guard members. Ataturk's last words to the Army and a speech commemorating Ataturk's legacy are inscribed on the walls of the Hall of Honor. On the ceiling are 15th and 16th century Turkish kilim (flat-woven carpet) motifs. Following the wreath laying, the President will proceed to the Republic Tower, where he will sign the guest book and visit the museum.
President Suleyman Demirel and Mrs. Demirel will welcome the President and the First Lady to Turkey at the Presidential Palace. The thickly wooded compound was built at the request of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk on the capital's highest hills. It is referred to colloquially as the Pink Palace for its unusual exterior color scheme. The Presidency houses the presidential residence, a museum, and a series of office complexes.
Bilateral Meeting with President Demirel of Turkey
Expanded Bilateral Meeting with President Demirel and Prime
Minister Bulent Ecevit of Turkey
Joint Press Availability with President Demirel
Meeting with Prime Minister Ecevit
Meeting with the Speaker Yildirim Akbulut
Address to Turkish Grand National Assembly (Parliament)
General Assembly Hall
The Parliament, as an institution, was the first organization founded by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. His aphorism, Sovereignty Belongs to the People Unconditionally is the Parliament's official motto. Under Ataturk's direction, the first Parliament passed the sweeping legal, judicial, cultural, and governmental reforms that laid the foundations for the establishment of the Republic. More than half of the 550 members of the Parliament elected in April 1999 are serving their first term in office.
The current Parliament House was designed by Austrian architect Clemens Holzmeister, who also designed the Presidential Palace. Opened in 1961, it is Turkey's third parliament complex.
Greet U.S. Congressional Delegation
State Dinner and Award Presentation
At the State Dinner, President Clinton will be given the Turkish State Award (in Turkish Devlet Nisani), which is considered the most prestigious medal given by the state. The Turkish Cabinet must issue a decree to give the award, which is presented only to heads of state in recognition of his or her contribution to bilateral relations.
Meetings with Religious Leaders
TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 16
In the morning, the President will depart Ankara en route Cengiz Topel Airfield in Izmit, the epicenter of the August 17 earthquake.
Tour and Remarks to Earthquake Survivors
Tent City in Izmit
Dogukisla tent camp was established by U.S. Marines after the devastating earthquake on August 17. The camp hosts an estimated 6,000 people in 435 U.S. military tents and 600 makeshift tents. Most tents have electricity, and heat is provided by gas heating units distributed by the Government of Turkey.
Food in the tent city is provided three times a day via an on-site kitchen. Sewage and water lines are also in place. The government and a Turkish nongovernmental organization focused on women's rights also run a rehabilitation center to provide counseling, educational, and recreational services for children and the elderly. Three additional community social centers are located in prefabricated buildings onsite as is one police station.
Dogukisla is located in Kocaeli province, Izmit, a major textile-producing area of Turkey. About 60 miles southeast of Istanbul, Kocaeli is the area hardest hit by the earthquake. Of the over 15,000 people who perished during the quake, 9,190 were killed in Kocaeli province and an additional 9,816 were injured. Nearly 8,000 buildings either collapsed or were later razed as the result of earthquake damage.
U.S. tents and other relief supplies were distributed throughout the Kocaeli province, including the Bekirpasa area near the Dogukisla site.
Following the President's remarks, he will speak with the quake survivors, and then depart for Istanbul.
U.S.-Turkey Business Lunch
The President will address a luncheon hosted by the Turkish-U.S. Business Council of the Foreign Economic Relations Board of Turkey (DEIK) and the American-Turkish Council (ATC).
The Turkish-U.S. Business Council was established in 1985 by the DEIK. Representing Turkey's business elite (the largest member, Koc Holding, accounts for 7 percent of Turkey's GDP), Council/DEIK members work with the government to improve economic relations between Turkey and the outside world, while attending to the narrower interests of member companies and institutions.
The American-Turkish Council (ATC), chaired by former Senator Nancy Kassebaum-Baker, is the leading business association in the United States devoted to the promotion of U.S.-Turkish commercial, defense, and cultural relations. The ATC maintains a diverse membership including U.S. and Turkish companies and individuals with an interest in U.S.-Turkish relations.
The Imperial Chalet is located on the grounds of Yildiz (Star) Park, whose gardens date at least to the reign of Murat IV (1623- 40). The buildings of the Yildiz Palace complex were built over a century, starting in the reign of Mahmut II (1808-39), through the reign of Abdul Hamit II (1876-1909). Abdul Hamit lived almost exclusively on the grounds of this Palace, preferring its secluded setting to more exposed residences along the Bosphorus shore. Like most Sultans before him, he also practiced a trade, establishing workshops at Yildiz to manufacture high-grade furniture and porcelain for this and other imperial palaces.
The Chalet is composed of two buildings, constructed in 1889 and 1898. It is the most splendid of the surviving residences in Yildiz Palace, with 50 rooms, the largest being the Reception Hall. The Palace was used principally as a residence for visiting royalty, notably Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1895. During that visit, Germany concluded an alliance with Ottomans.
With the fall of the Empire, the palace buildings fell into disrepair, but in recent years the Turkish Touring and Automobile Association has restored the Chalet.
Following the luncheon, the President will depart for the Conrad Hotel. He has no other official activities scheduled for the day.
WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 17
EPHESUS and ISTANBUL, TURKEY
In the morning, the President and the First Lady depart Istanbul for the Selcuk Airport, where they will continue on to Ephesus, Turkey.
Once the third city of the Roman Empire, Ephesus is among the best preserved and reconstructed classical cities in the eastern Mediterranean. Austrian archeologists have done most of the excavation. Dr. Toni Cross, an archeologist and Director of the American Research Institute in Turkey, and Cengiz Içten, an archeologist with the Ephesus Museum, will escort the President through the site, as they did for the First Lady in 1996.
Ionian Greeks colonized Ephesus in the 10th century B.C., although
the original settlement was east of the current excavation. Ephesus enjoyed a
well-protected harbor and by the 6th century B.C. had developed into a major
trading port. It was also a center for the worship of Artemis (Diana to the
Romans), the virgin goddess of the hunt and the moon. When King Croesus of
Lydia attacked Ephesus in the 560 B.C., the inhabitants of the wall-less city
stretched a rope the 1.2 km distance from the temple of Artemis to the city,
expecting the goddess to protect them. Croesus conquered the city, only to be
displaced by the Persians fifteen years later. After a tumultuous period of war
and revolt, the city was taken without a fight in 334 B.C. by Alexander the
Great. Silting of the harbor required the city to move to its present location.
Ephesus came under Roman control after 133 B.C. and was made capital of the
province of Asia in 27 B.C. Ephesus continued to prosper, becoming one of the
largest cities in the Empire. Buildings from this period are visible at the
St. John is said to have brought the Virgin Mary to Ephesus circa A.D. 37-45, where she lived out the rest of her life. Circa A.D. 53, St. Paul came and preached in the city for three years. According to the Bible, Paul was so successful that silversmiths, seeing their lucrative trade in images of Diana suffering, spread rumors that someone was being disrespectful to Diana, and gathered a huge crowd in the Great Theater. St. Paul was dissuaded from entering the arena, and left Ephesus shortly thereafter. St. John later left the city to spread the Gospel, returning after his release from prison in Rome.
A Gothic attack in A.D. 262 marked the waning of the city's wealth. Continued silting of the harbor diminished trade and brought disease. In the 4th century AD, a basilica was built at the near-by site of St. John's grave. Eventually, the city was abandoned in favor of near-by Selçuk.
Virgin Mary's Grotto
The President and the First Lady will visit a chapel that stands on what is believed by many to be the site of the last home of the Virgin Mary. The house is located in a national park on the top of Mount Bulbul, above Ephesus.
On the right as the President approaches the house are panels on which the story of the house of the Virgin Mary is written in different languages. A small chapel stands on the site today. The site belongs to the Turkish Government, but a small staff of Roman Catholic clergymen tends the chapel and conducts services there. Water from the fountain below the chapel is believed to have medicinal properties. The site is sacred to Christians as well as Muslims, who revere Mary as the mother of a prophet.
Outsiders discovered the house after a German nun, Katherina Emmerich (1771-1824), described the site in a vision. Lazarist clergy from Izmir followed Emmerich's detailed descriptions, and in 1891 discovered the foundation of a small Byzantine church dating from the 6th or 7th centuries. The church is believed to have been built on the site long venerated by local Christians as the location of the Virgin Mary's house.
The Turkish Government in 1951 completed the restoration of the chapel. In 1967, Pope Paul VI visited the site and confirmed the authenticity of the legend. Each August 15, a service presided over by Orthodox and Muslim clergy honors Mary's assumption into heaven.
Following the tour, the President and First Lady will depart for Istanbul.
Call on Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew
Office of the Patriarch
The President and the First Lady will visit the Ecumenical Patriarch, His All Holiness Bartholomew I, at the Ecumenical Patriarchate located in the Phanar (Fener) district.
The Patriarchal Church of Saint George in Phanar is the fifth church in Istanbul that has housed the Ecumenical Patriarchate since 1453. The church served as a convent until Patriarch Matthew II converted it into the seat of the Patriarchate. Patriarch Timothy II refurbished the church in 1614. Destroyed by fire in 1720, it was rebuilt by Patriarch Jeremiah III. During the same year, the church was renovated and a dome was constructed. Later the dome was destroyed, and Patriarch Gregorios VI repaired the church in 1836. The Patriarchal church, in its present form, is a basilica with three aisles.
Among the most precious and valuable artifacts of the Patriarchal Church of Saint George is the Patriarchal Throne, which, according to the inscriptions under the eaves on its gables, was given as a gift in 1577 to the Patriarchal Church of the Panagia Pammakaristos by Patriarch Jeremiah II. The throne, standing four meters high, is made of walnut. It is inlaid with ivory, pearl and colored wood in a vine-like pattern. Another revered artifact is the Holy Column of the Flagellation of the Lord. It is reputedly a portion of the column where Jesus Christ was tied and whipped by Roman soldiers during His Passion, before being crucified. The church also hosts the icons of Panagia Pammakaristos (Virgin Mary the Most Blessed), John the Baptist, Panagia Faneromeni (The Appearance of Virgin Mary); and the holy relics of the Great Martyr Saint Euphemia, Saint Theofano and Saint Solomone.
OSCE Cultural Performance
This evening, the President will attend a dance and musical performance by the Istanbul State Opera and Ballet at the Lutfi Kirdar International Convention and Exhibition Center. The performance will be followed by a reception hosted by the Turkish Minister of Foreign Affairs, Ismail Cem, at the main foyer of the Center for invited guests.
The International Convention and Exhibition Center (ICEC) was named for Dr. Lutfi Kirdar (1898-1961), the longest serving (1938-1949) governor and mayor of Istanbul since the founding of the Turkish Republic in 1923. He is remembered for his modernization of the city and his many projects for improving public services.
The ICEC, Turkey's largest convention center, first opened its doors in June 1996 for the United Nations Habitat II Conference and was officially inaugurated on September 5, 1996. The Center is located in the Harbiye district of Istanbul, approximately 2 miles from OSCE Summit site.
THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 18
OSCE Summit (Session I)
The summit will be opened with remarks by four speakers: President Demirel, Mr.Vollebaek, Chairman-in-Office of the OSCE (Norway), Secretary-General of the United Nations Kofi Annan; and Ms.Helle Degn, President of the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly (Denmark). These remarks will be followed by the statements by the Heads of the participating states, OSCE Mediterranean Partners for Cooperation, and the OSCE Partners for Cooperation.
The OSCE summit will be held in the Ciragon palace and hotel, the former residence of Ottoman Sultans located directly on the European shore of the Bosphorus -- the Strait dividing Europe and Asia and linking the Black Sea to the Sea of Marmara. An Armenian architect, Nikogos Balyan, whose grand nineteenth century creations line the Bosphorus, built the Ciragon Palace in 1874. At Sultan Abdul Mecit I's request, Balyan added to his design Arabic architectural touches from sketches of Moorish buildings such as the Alhambra at Granada in Spain. The Ciragon briefly became the home of the Parliament in 1909 until a fire in 1910 destroyed much of the structure. It remained a burned out shell, before being restored in 1990 as the Ciragon Palace Hotel Kempinski. It is considered one of the finest hotels in the country.
With its reputation as Istanbul's most prestigious hotel, the Ciragon has hosted many U.S. officials: President and Mrs. Bush in 1991, Secretary Warren Christopher in 1993, Secretary James Baker in 1994, UN Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali in 1996, and First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton in 1996.
Bilateral Meeting with President Robert Kocharian of
Bilateral Meeting with President Jacques Chirac of
After the morning plenary session, a picture will be taken of the
Heads of the 54 participating states.
The photo will be taken outside of the Ciragon Palace on the marble promenade that abuts the palace and runs the length of the Bosphorus frontage. The photo will be framed against views of the Ortakoy mosque further up the Bosphorus, the Ataturk bridge linking Europe and Asia, the palace, and the Bosphorus itself.
Luncheon Hosted by Prime Minister Ecevit
Prime Minister Ecevit will host a lunch for all Heads of State at the Bellini Restaurant located in the Ciragon Palace. The Bellini restaurant is one of many located in the palace section of the Ciragon and commands views of the Bosphorus.
Photo Opportunity and Bilateral Meeting with President Boris
Yeltsin of Russia
OSCE Summit (Session II)
OSCE Charter Signing
The President and all Heads of the 53 other participating states will participate in the signing of the OSCE Charter on European Security. This Charter will reflect agreement of OSCE participating states on what responsibilities they have and what steps the organization and its various bodies may be empowered to take.
Meeting with NGO Leaders
Greet Consulate Staff
OSCE Summit Dinner
President Suleyman Demirel will host a dinner for the Heads of State, Foreign Ministers, and Members of Delegations and their spouses. The Swissotel, a deluxe hotel located in the center of Istanbul in a park setting on the European banks of the Bosphorus, has been in business since March 1991. The spacious gardens of the hotel previously belonged to the Dolmabahce palace, which was the last residence of the Ottoman Sultans. Situated on a wooded hilltop, the hotel commands views of the Bosphorus and Asian coast.
FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 19
ISTANBUL, TURKEY and ATHENS, GREECE and FLORENCE, ITALY
CFE Signing Ceremony
This morning, the President will sign an adapted CFE Treaty which will update an agreement that has been a cornerstone of European security since it was signed in 1990. The signing will take place at the Lutfi Kirdar International Convention and Exhibition Center.
The representative of the depository country, Prime Minister Kok of the Netherlands, will inaugurate the ceremony with a brief statement. President Demirel, as the host country representative, will make a brief statement welcoming the leaders, stressing the importance of the CFE treaty, and will invite the leaders to sign the Amendment Document. The signature pages for each country will be placed before the 30 leaders of the CFE states to sign simultaneously
OSCE Summit (Session III)
Bilateral Meeting with President Heydar Aliyev of
OSCE Closing Ceremony
After the closing ceremony, the President will depart for Athens, Greece.
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