GEORGE C. MARSHALL
George C. Marshall, one of the great American statesmen of this century,
played a crucial role in international affairs from 1939 to 1951 -- the years
that shaped the second half of the century. Until 1945, he was in the military
service of the United States. As Chief of Staff of the U.S. Army from 1939 to
1945 he was, in the words of Winston Churchill, the "true architect of victory"
in the West European arena of World War II.
In a succession of positions of great responsibility between 1945 and
1951, Marshall devoted his efforts to the cause of international peace and
security. He spent a year in China in 1945-46 as President Truman's
representative, attempting -- without success --to bring about a peaceful
resolution to the conflict between the nationalists and the communists. As
Secretary of State from 1947 to 1949, he had the vision to make the Marshall
Plan the vehicle for the economic reconstruction of Europe.
As Europeans endured unemployment, dislocation, and starvation in the
wake of World War II's devastation, the Marshall Plan embodied Marshall's
conviction that economic recovery and stability were vital underpinnings to the
successful rebuilding of a democratic Europe. Marshall's belief that America's
security and continued economic growth were inextricably linked to Europe's
well-being, which formed the cornerstone of his Plan.
With the assistance of the Marshall Plan, Western Europe began to
recover from the ravages of war. Marshall's effort to include the Soviet Union
and Eastern Europe in this grand design was rejected by Moscow. As Western
Europe rebuilt, Europe was divided both economically and ideologically, and
conflicting politics soon laid the ground for another war -- The Cold War.
When it became evident that the gap between Eastern and Western Europe
would not be bridged, and that the Western European states feared for their
safety, Marshall was one of the leaders who created the North Atlantic Treaty
Organization which would ensure the security of the West. The establishment of
NATO in 1949 achieved a balance of power in Europe that endured until the end
of the Cold War.
In his last official position as Secretary of Defense during 1950-51,
Marshall oversaw the formation of an international force, under the United
Nations, that turned back the North Korean invasion of South Korea.
Although he spent most of his life in the U.S. military, Marshall is
best remembered as a true internationalist who sought peace for the world
through cooperation and understanding among nations. It was a fitting tribute
to a splendid career spent pursuing this ideal that Marshall received the Nobel
Prize for Peace in 1953.