Name: Republic of Turkey
Area: 766,640 sq. km. (296,000 sq. mi.) slightly larger than
Cities: Capital -- Ankara (pop. 3.7 million). Other
cities -- Istanbul (9.2 million), Izmir (3.2 million), Bursa (1.9 million),
Adana (1.7 million).
Terrain: Narrow coastal plain surrounds Anatolia, an
inland plateau becomes increasingly rugged as it progresses eastward. Turkey
includes one of the more earthquake-prone areas of the world.
Moderate in coastal areas, harsher temperatures inland.
Nationality: Noun -- Turk(s). Adjective --
Population (1999): 65.5 million.
Annual growth rate:
Ethnic groups: Turkish, Kurdish, other.
Religions: Muslim 98%,
Christian, and Jewish.
Languages: Turkish (official), Kurdish, and
Education: Years compulsory -- 8. Attendance -- 95%.
Literacy -- 82%.
Health: Infant mortality rate -- 35.81/1,000.
Life expectancy -- 73 yrs.
Work force (23 million):
Agriculture -- 46%. Industry and commerce -- 16%. Services
Independence: October 29,
Constitution: November 7, 1982.
Branches: Executive --
president (chief of state), prime minister (head of government), Council of
Ministers (cabinet -- appointed by the president on the nomination of the prime
minister). Legislative -- Grand National Assembly (550 members) chosen
by national elections at least every 5 years.
Constitutional Court, Court of Cassation, Council of State, and other
Political parties: Democratic Left Party (DSP), Nationalist Action
Party (MHP), Motherland Party (ANAP), Virtue (Fazilet) Party, True Path Party
(DYP), Republican People's Party (CHP), and several smaller
Suffrage: Universal, 18 and older.
National holiday: Republic
Day, October 29.
Flag: White crescent and star on a red field.
GNP (1999 est.): $200 billion.
Annual growth rate (1998): 3.8%;
GNP per capita: $3,200.
Average annual inflation rate
Natural resources: Coal, chromium, mercury, copper, boron,
Agriculture (15% of GNP): Major cash crops -- cotton,
sugarbeets, hazelnuts, wheat, barley, and tobacco. Provides more than 47% of
jobs, 12% of exports.
Industry (29% of GNP, major growth sector:
Types -- Food processing, textiles, basic metals, chemicals, and
Trade (1999 est.): Exports -- $26 billion: textiles
and apparel, iron and steel, electronics, tobacco, and motor vehicles.
Imports -- $40.2 billion: petroleum, machinery, motor vehicles,
electronics, iron and steel, plastics. Major partners -- France,
Germany, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, U.K., U.S., Russia.
Bridging Europe and Asia Minor, Turkey is a land of geographic,
economic, and social contrasts. Slightly larger than Texas, modern Turkey spans
bustling cosmopolitan centers, pastoral farming villages, barren wastelands,
peaceful Aegean coastlines, and steep mountain regions. More than half of
Turkey's population lives in urban areas that juxtapose Western lifestyles with
traditional-style mosques and markets. Most Turks, however, work in
agriculture. Although Turkey is still a developing country, recent improvements
in services have resulted in the proliferation of electricity nationwide and
telephone connections for all its 34,500 villages.
Turkey has been officially secular since 1924, although 98% of the
population is Muslim. Most Turkish Muslims belong to the Sunni branch of Islam,
but a significant number are Alevi Muslims. The appeal of political Islam and
the Kurdish insurgency continue to fuel public debate on several aspects of
Turkish society, including the role of religion, the necessity for human rights
protections, and the expectation of security.
Turks of Kurdish origin constitute an ethnic and linguistic group.
Estimates of their population range up to 12 million. Although an increasing
number have migrated to the cities, the traditional home of the Kurds is in
poor, remote areas of the east and southeast, where incomes are less than half
the national average and all other economic and social indicators lag.
Turkish culture, rich in Ottoman and folkloric elements, is
traditional and modern. Turkish carpet weaving is one of the oldest crafts in
the world. Ceramics and other Ottoman-era crafts retain their varied regional
Modern Turkish cultural life dates from the 1923 founding of the
republic and early efforts to Westernize Turkish society. As a result, the
arts, literature, drama, and classical and contemporary music have flourished.
State support of cultural activities is extensive and encompasses a national
network of theaters, orchestras, opera and ballet companies, university fine
arts academies, and various conservatories. Public funds also are used to
provide partial support for private theater groups and for major art exhibits
The legendary Mustafa Kemal, a Turkish World War I hero later
known as "Ataturk" or "father of the Turks," founded the Republic of Turkey in
1923 after the collapse of the 600-year-old Ottoman Empire. The empire, which
at its peak controlled vast stretches of northern Africa, southeastern Europe,
and western Asia, had failed to keep pace with European social and
technological developments. The rise of nationalism impelled several ethnic
groups to seek independence, leading to the empire's fragmentation. This
process culminated in the disastrous Ottoman participation in World War I as a
German ally. Defeated, shorn of much of its former territory, and partly
occupied by forces of the victorious European states, the Ottoman structure was
repudiated by Turkish nationalists who rallied under Ataturk's leadership. The
nationalists expelled invading Greek forces from Anatolia after a bitter war.
The temporal and religious ruling institutions of the old empire (the sultanate
and caliphate) were abolished.
The new republic concentrated on Westernizing the empire's Turkish
core -- Anatolia and a small part of Thrace. Social, political, linguistic, and
economic reforms and attitudes introduced by Ataturk before his death in 1938
continue to form the ideological base of modern Turkey. Referred to as
"Kemalism," it comprises secularism, nationalism, and modernization and turns
toward the West for inspiration and support. The continued validity and
applicability of Kemalism are the subject of frequent discussion and debate in
Turkey's political life.
Turkey entered World War II on the Allied side shortly before the
war ended and became a charter member of the United Nations. Difficulties faced
by Greece after World War II in quelling a communist rebellion and demands by
the Soviet Union for military bases in the Turkish Straits caused the United
States to declare the Truman Doctrine in 1947. The doctrine enunciated American
intentions to guarantee the security of Turkey and Greece and resulted in
largescale U.S. military and economic aid. After participating with United
Nations forces in the Korean conflict, Turkey in 1952 joined the North Atlantic
Treaty Organization (NATO).
GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS
The 1982 constitution preserves a democratic, secular,
parliamentary form of government with a strengthened presidency. It provides
for an independent judiciary and safeguards internationally recognized human
rights. These rights, including freedom of thought, expression, assembly, and
travel, can be limited in times of emergency and cannot be used to violate the
integrity of the state or to impose a system of government based on religion,
ethnicity, or the domination of one social class. The constitution prohibits
torture or ill treatment. Labor rights, including the right to strike, are
recognized in the constitution but can be restricted. The president and the
Council of Ministers led by the prime minister share executive powers. The
president, who has broad powers of appointment and supervision, is chosen by
Parliament for a term of 7 years and cannot be reelected. The prime minister
administers the government. The prime minister and the Council of Ministers are
responsible to Parliament.
The 550-member Parliament carries out legislative functions.
Election is by proportional representation. To participate in the distribution
of seats, a party must obtain at least 10% of the votes cast at the national
level as well as a percentage of votes in the contested district according to a
complex formula. This "double threshold" or "barrage" mechanism is intended to
reduce the likelihood of coalition governments by reducing the number of
smaller parties in Parliament.
The president is to enact laws passed by Parliament within 15
days. With the exception of budgetary laws, the president may return a law to
the Parliament for reconsideration. If Parliament reenacts the law, it is
binding. constitutional amendments require a two-thirds majority for approval.
They also may be submitted to popular referendum.
The 1982 constitution preserves the judicial system previously in
effect and provides for a system of State Security Courts to deal with offenses
against the integrity of the state. The high court system remains in place with
its functional division, common in European states, including a Constitutional
Court responsible for judicial review of legislation, a Court of Cassation (or
Supreme Court of appeals), a Council of State serving as the high
administrative and appeals court, a Court of Accounts, and a Military Court of
Appeals. The High Council of Judges and Prosecutors, appointed by the
President, supervises the judiciary.
Modern Turkey has a democratic tradition marred by several periods
of instability and authoritarian rule. One-party rule (Republican People's
Party-CHP) established by Ataturk in 1923 lasted until elections in 1950. The
Democrat Party then governed Turkey until 1960, when growing economic problems
and internal political tensions culminated in a military coup. A new
constitution was written, and civilian government was reinstated with the
convening of the Grand National Assembly (GNA) in 1961. This constitution
established a National Security Council (NSC) composed of the president; the
prime minister and other key ministers; the Chief of the Turkish General Staff;
and representatives of the army, air force, and navy.
Coalition governments, dominated by the CHP, ruled Turkey for the
next 5 years. In 1965 and 1969, the Justice Party (JP), led by Suleyman
Demirel, won sizable majorities of GNA seats and ruled alone.
Political agitation surfaced in 1968 and increased as left- and
right-wing extremists took to the streets. In March 1971, senior military
leaders grew dissatisfied with the JP's inability to cope with domestic
violence. In a so-called "coup by memorandum," they called for the JP's
replacement by a more effective government.
Demirel's government resigned and was replaced by a succession of
"above party" governments, which ruled until the October 1973 general
elections. Those elections saw the CHP reemerge as the largest party and its
chairman, Bulent Ecevit, become prime minister of a coalition government
composed of the CHP and the conservative, religiously oriented, National
Salvation Party. In 1974, the coalition faltered. Ecevit resigned, early
elections were called, and a prolonged government crisis ensued.
From 1975 to 1980, unstable coalition governments ruled, led
alternately by Demirel and Ecevit. By the end of 1979, an accelerating decline
in the economy, coupled with mounting violence from the extreme left and right,
led to increasing instability. Demirel's government began an economic
stabilization program in early 1980, but by summer, political violence was
claiming more than 20 victims daily. A severely divided GNA was unable to elect
a new president or to pass other legislation to cope with the crisis.
On September 12, 1980, the CNS ("Council of National Security"),
led by Gen. Kenan Evren, moved successfully to restore public order. Thousands
of terrorists were captured, along with large caches of weapons and ammunition.
While political activity was banned and the former political parties dissolved,
the CNS initiated steps to restore democratic civilian rule by 1983. These
measures included a national referendum on November 7, 1982, which resulted in
overwhelming public approval (91%) of a new constitution drawn up by the
160-member Consultative Assembly and modified by the CNS. The referendum
simultaneously approved General Evren as president for a 7-year term. A
temporary article banning former political party leaders from politics for 10
years also went into effect.
New political parties were allowed to form in 1983 as long as
founding members were not leaders or members of Parliament attached to any
pre-1980 political parties. Prior to the deadline for participation in the 1983
national elections, three political parties -- the Nationalist Democracy Party,
the Motherland Party and the Populist Party -- were authorized.
In the 1983 elections, the Motherland Party (ANAP -- founded by
Turgut Ozal, Deputy Prime Minister 1980-82 and architect of Turkey's successful
economic austerity program under the military government) won an absolute
majority in the then 400-member Grand National Assembly. The Populist Party
came in second and the Nationalist Democracy Party third. The new government
took office in December 1983. The Ozal administration, the first civilian
government since the early 1970s to rule without coalition partners, made
economic reform its priority.
In September 1987, a referendum lifting the 10-year ban on former
politicians passed by a small margin. Ozal called immediately for national
elections, the first since 1980 in which all legal parties were allowed to
participate. The elections were held in November, and Ozal won a second 5-year
term and a comfortable majority in Parliament (292 of then 450 seats based on a
weighted proportional system). The Social Democrat Populist Party won 99 seats
and became the main opposition party. Former Prime Minister Suleyman Demirel's
True Path Party won 59 seats. No other party reached the 10% level necessary to
enter Parliament. The Democratic Left Party of former Prime Minister Bulent
Ecevit won only 8% of the vote.
In 1989, Turgut Ozal was elected president by the Parliament, but
Ozal's Motherland Party suffered a setback in March 1989 municipal elections,
receiving only 22% of the votes cast; down from 36% in 1987. In October 1991,
Suleyman Demirel's True Path Party (DYP) won 179 seats in the parliamentary
elections and formed a coalition government with the Social Democratic Populist
Party, which had won 99 seats. In 1993, Demirel was elected president after
Turgut Ozal died, and Tansu Ciller became Turkey's first female prime
In the March 1994 local elections, the Islamist Welfare Party (RP)
emerged as the big winner, capturing the offices of mayor of Ankara and
Istanbul and most municipalities in Turkey's southeast, even though the DYP got
the largest percentage of the vote. These local elections marked the emergence
of RP as a political force.
In the September 1995 party convention, Deniz Baykal was elected
CHP party leader. Baykal and Ciller failed to conclude an agreement to continue
the coalition, forcing the government to resign on September 20, which led to a
45-day parliamentary "crisis." President Demirel asked Ciller to try to form a
new government. Ciller established a DYP-only minority government in late
September but failed to win a vote of confidence. Demirel gave Ciller a second
chance to form a government, and she again turned to Baykal. They formed a new
DYP-CHP coalition that won a confidence vote on November 5. The two parties
cooperated in passing a new election law and set general elections for
In the December 1995 elections, three parties emerged with nearly
identical electoral support of around 20% each: the Islamic-oriented Welfare
Party of Necmettin Erbakan, the moderate center-right Motherland Party of Mesut
Yilmaz, and Ciller's moderate center-right True Path Party. The latter two
parties represent the secular Turkish mainstream, but as a result of animosity
between their two leaders, they were unable to successfully forge a lasting
coalition that would have precluded a RP role in government; the ANAP-DYP
coalition lasted only a few months. In July 1996, Ciller and Erbakan agreed to
form a government in which Erbakan, because his party had garnered more votes,
was the senior partner.
The Erbakan government tried to set some new policy directions by
"reaching out" to a new group of international partners, challenging the
military's political role, and seeking to chip away at secularism. As a result,
the military, throughout the spring and late summer of 1997 supported a growing
popular movement of business, labor, and community groups to build pressure for
the Erbakan government's resignation. In June, Mesut Yilmaz formed a new
minority government with Ecevit's Democratic Left Party (DSP) and Cindoruk's
Democrat Turkey party.
These three parties governed with 223 of 550 seats in Parliament.
This was possible because the Republican People's Party (CHP) under Deniz
Baykal supported the coalition without being a part of it. As a requirement of
CHP's support, in June 1998 Yilmaz announced that he would resign at the end of
the year and hand over power to an "election" government until new elections in
President Suleyman Demirel asked Ecevit on January 7 to form a
government to succeed that of Prime Minister Yilmaz, which fell on November 25
in response to corruption allegations. Ecevit's government won a vote of
confidence on January 17 and ruled until national elections were held on April
In the April 1999 elections, the Democratic Left Party (DSP)
captured 22% of the vote, followed closely by the far right Nationalist
Movement Party (MHP) which garnered 18%. Together with center-right Motherland
Party (ANAP), the three parties forged a coalition with a strong majority of
approximately 360 of the 550 seats in Parliament. Ecevit's government won a
vote of confidence in Parliament on June 9. Bolstered by its strong
parliamentary majority, the 57th government embarked on an ambitious reform
program that contained legislative proposals that had been attempted by several
previous governments but had never succeeded.
Between June and September 1999, the 57th government successfully
enacted legislation that included reform of the country's banking sector and
social security system; codified procedures for the submission of foreign
investment contracts to international arbitration; removed military officers as
judges in State Security Courts; and amended the political parties law to make
judicial closure of parties more difficult.
Principal Government Officials
President of the Republic -- Suleyman Demirel
Prime Minister --
Minister of Foreign Affairs -- Ismail Cem
Ambassador to the
United States -- Baki Ilkin
Ambassador to the United Nations -- Huseyin
Turkey maintains an embassy in the United States at 1714
Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC, 20036, Tel. (202) 659-8200 and
consulates general in Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, and Houston.
Turkey is a free market economy oriented to Western markets. The
share of agriculture in the economy is decreasing as industry and services
continue to expand rapidly. Turkey continues to examine ways to improve its
investment climate through changes in its IPR legislation. The Turkish
privatization board continues to evaluate a series of significant
privatizations including telecommunications, iron and steel, and banks.
Turkey is a customs union partner with the European Union and a
member of the WTO. Turkey has a number of bilateral investment and tax
treaties, including with the United States, that guarantee free repatriation of
capital in convertible currencies and eliminate double taxation. Nonetheless,
foreign direct investment has totaled only $12 billion at the most since 1980,
a paltry sum reflecting investor concerns about political uncertainty,
inadequate regulations, stalled privatization, and troubling macroeconomic
Turkey has undertaken economic reforms over the past 15 years that
have reduced the government's role in the economy and permitted the private
sector to thrive. Turkey has abandoned the insulated, state-directed economic
policies put in place by Ataturk. An export-led growth strategy and free-market
principles catapulted Turkey into the ranks of the fastest-growing economies in
Turkey's leadership, however, failed to complete the reform
program that was initiated in the early 1980s, exacerbating Turkey's economic
problems. Large public sector deficits and resulting high inflation continue to
hamper the economy.
Rapidly overcoming a government-caused financial crisis in 1994,
Turkey grew 7.4% in 1996 and 8.5% in 1997. In 1998, prior to implementation of
a disinflationary program, the economy grew 3.8%. WPI inflation rose to a peak
of 91% in this period but fell to 50% in early 1999.
The Ecevit government, in place since June 1999, restarted
structural reform, including passage of social security reform. Privatization
is expect to revive with passage of legislation designed to implement
international arbitration and to introduce a regulatory framework for the
energy and telecom sectors.
Turkey's current account normally runs a slight deficit, but,
owing to the economic slowdown in late 1998 and through 1999, the current
account turned positive for 6 months. The elimination of duties for most
manufactured imports under the EU Customs Union led to a sharp rise in imports
from the EU, and the EU's share of imports increased to about 60%.
Turkey's GNP has grown at an average annual rate of 5% since 1983,
ranking it at the top of the OECD countries, although the growth pattern has
been uneven. The recession in 1994, when GNP fell a record 6%, brought to an
end 13 years of positive growth. The economy rebounded with 8.1% GNP growth in
1995, 7.4% in 1996, and 8.0% in 1997. Officially, gross national product (GNP)
totaled $204 billion in 1998.
Inflation, Wages, and Monetary Policy
Turkey's principal economic problem remains inflation, fueled
primarily by large public sector deficits and ingrained inflation expectations.
Annual consumer price inflation has averaged 79% since prices began to escalate
in 1988; wholesale price inflation has averaged 75% over the same period.
Average annual inflation was 75% in 1998. The government continues to regulate
some prices to control the impact of inflation on low-income households. The
prices of bread, sugar, tea, energy, and public utilities are regulated. The
government also exerts large control over wage rates because of large public
Turkey's monetary authorities have successfully adopted policies
to build up convertible currency reserves, maintain an even depreciation of the
lira in line with inflation, and ensure smooth functioning of market clearing
mechanisms. The Central Bank and Treasury finalized an agreement in July 1997
to put strict limits on short-term Treasury borrowings and realized a slight
primary surplus (the public sector balance excluding interest payments) instead
of the projected 1% of GNP primary deficit for 1997. The 1998 primary surplus
exceeded 4% of GNP.
Principal Growth Sectors
Energy. Electric energy demand in Turkey is growing by
approximately 10% a year. By the year 2000 electrical energy demand is
projected to reach 130 billion kWh. Much of this increase will be met by
natural gas fired plants. Even if all the current hydroelectric potential (120
billion kWh) can be used, total output will be far from sufficient to meet
anticipated requirements by the year 2000. Turkey requires 2000 - 2500
megawatts of additional power generation capacity per year over the next 10-15
years. The Turkish Government plans to meet this demand for electricity by
encouraging Turkish and foreign private sector investments in the power
generation and distribution sectors through build-operate,
build-operate-transfer, and transfer of operating rights projects. Once these
privatizations are implemented, Turkey intends to have an electricity pool
system regulated by an independent regulatory body.
Telecommunications. Turkey currently has more than 17
million telephone lines with a density of 25%. In order to meet its growing
demand, Turkey needs to install 2 - 2.5 million additional lines per year.
Telephone density is expected to reach 40% by 2005. Cellular density was
extended at 3.8% by the spring of 1999. Reforms of telecommunications
regulations will continue until an independent regulatory body is established.
The government has initiated the process to enact new legislation regarding
these reforms and is expected to set up a regulatory body by early 2000. During
1998, the government sold two licenses for the provision of cellular service
and plans to privatize 39% of Turk Telecom in 2000.
In 1993 Turkey had a telephone exchange main line capacity of
approximately 12.7 million and telephone subscriber density of 21 lines per 100
persons. By the year 2002, Turkey aims to increase its subscriber line capacity
to 20 million, and increase the telephone line density to 25 per 100 persons.
The system is expected to be 80% digital by that point.
Environment. With the establishment of a Ministry of
Environment in 1991, environmental issues have taken on increased prominence.
New regulations regarding sewage, medical waste, and power plant emissions will
add growth to this sector. All new plants, as a part of their approval process,
must submit an environmental impact assessment to the Ministry of the
Environment and obtain approval before starting construction. Municipal
governments nationwide also are implementing environmental projects to better
handle sewage and solid waste.
Transport. The Turkish Government gives a special priority
to major infrastructure projects, especially in the transport sector. The
government is planning the construction of new airports, ports, and highways.
The government will realize the majority of these projects by utilizing the
build-operate-transfer (BOT) model.
Textiles. The textile sector is Turkey's largest
manufacturing industry and it's largest export sector. Turkey's textile
producers are generally very modern and highly competitive, although an
excessive amount of investment has taken place under government incentives in
low-value-added categories. The removal of quotas to the EU -- part of the
customs union -- has improved growth prospects. The global phase-out of textile
quotas called for in the Uruguay Round also increases the sector's
Other principal growth sectors are defense equipment, tourism
infrastructure, building products, automobiles, and electronics.
Turkey's primary political, economic, and security ties are with
the West. During the last several years, Turkey has continued to expand its
relations with western Europe, rejoining the Council of Europe after an absence
of several years and applying for full membership in the EU.
Turkey entered NATO in 1952 and serves as the organization's vital
eastern anchor, controlling the straits leading from the Black Sea to the
Mediterranean and sharing a border with Syria, Iraq, and Iran. Two NATO
headquarters are located in Izmir. Besides its relationships with NATO and the
European Union (EU), Turkey is a member of the OECD, the Council of Europe, and
OSCE. Turkey also is a member of the UN and the Islamic Conference Organization
Due to proximity and Turkic linguistic and ethnic ties, the
Turkish Government and businesses continue to develop links with most of the
Central Asian and Caucasian states. The Turkish Government has stated that it
would like to see the establishment of joint ventures between Turkish and
foreign firms to further tap the potential of the emerging Central Asian
markets. Turkey has established the Turkish International Cooperation Agency to
foster such ventures. Turkey also has continued to expand its trade relations
with the Middle East and Russia.
Turkey and the EU formed a customs union beginning January 1,
1996. The agreement covers industrial and processed agricultural goods. Turkey
has harmonized its laws and regulations with EU standards. Turkey adopted the
EU's Common External Tariff regime, effectively lowering Turkey's tariffs for
third countries, including the United States.
Turkey is a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO). It
signed a free trade agreement with the European Free Trade Association (EFTA)
in 1991; it is negotiating free trade agreements with several central European
countries. In 1992 Turkey and 10 other regional nations formed the Black Sea
Economic Cooperation Council to expand regional trade and economic
Turkish-American friendship dates to the late 18th century and was
officially sealed by a treaty in 1830. The present close relationship began
with the agreement of July 12, 1947, which implemented the Truman Doctrine. As
part of the cooperative effort to further Turkish economic and military
self-reliance, the United States has loaned and granted Turkey more than $4
billion in economic aid and more than $14 billion in military assistance.
President Clinton, Secretary Albright, Energy Secretary
Richardson, Commerce Secretary Daley, and other leading Americans have all
identified Turkey as "pivotal," "central," and "important" to a wide range of
priority American interests. Turkey's geography and modern history, its
economic and military power, its weight in international organizations
particularly NATO, its supporting U.S. military activities from Korea to
Kosovo, and its dynamic internal struggle between strong popular aspirations
for further democratization vs. institutionalized resistance, add up to make
Turkey's importance to the United States both obvious and growing.
In December 1997, President Clinton and then-Prime Minister Yilmaz
agreed to base U.S.-Turkish relations on a five-point agenda of shared
interests: strategic energy cooperation; boosting trade and investment;
strengthening security ties; collaborating for regional stability; and removing
Cyprus and Aegean tensions as flashpoints. Human rights progress also is an
important interest. The interim Ecevit government adopted this agenda without
modification in early 1999, and it formed the basis of discussions for Prime
Minister Ecevit and President Clinton when they met in the White House on
September 28, 1999. President Clinton is scheduled to make a state visit to
Turkey and then participate in the OSCE Summit in Istanbul during November
The U.S. and Turkey have had a Joint Economic Commission since
1993. Turkey has been designated a Big Emerging Market (BEM) for U.S. exports
and investment by the Department of Commerce. In 1997, the U.S. trade surplus
with Turkey was more than $2.0 billion. The U.S. is Turkey's third-largest
Principal U.S. Officials
Ambassador -- Mark Parris
Deputy Chief of Mission - James F.
Political Affairs -- Gene
Political-Military Affairs -- Stuart Brown
Economic Affairs --
Regional Affairs -- Terry Percival
Consular Affairs --
Administrative Affairs -- Art Salvaterra
-- Helena Finn
Agricultural Affairs -- Susan Schayes
-- John Breidenstine
Defense/Air Attache -- Col. James M. Carlin,
Navy Attache -- Comdr. Ken Taylor, USN
Army Attache -- USA
General Istanbul -- Frank Urbancic
Consul Adana -- Stuart Jones
The U.S. embassy is located at 110 Ataturk Blvd., Ankara. The
consulate general in Istanbul is at 104-108 Mesrutiyet Caddesi; the consular
agent in Izmir at Kazim Dirik Caddesi, Atabay Is Merkezi 13/805, and the
consulate in Adana, on Ataturk Caddesi.
TRAVEL AND BUSINESS INFORMATION
The U.S. Department of State's Consular Information Program
provides Consular Information Sheets, Travel Warnings, and Public
Announcements. Consular Information Sheets exist for all countries and
include information on entry requirements, currency regulations, health
conditions, areas of instability, crime and security, political disturbances,
and the addresses of the U.S. posts in the country. Travel Warnings are
issued when the State Department recommends that Americans avoid travel to a
certain country. Public Announcements are issued as a means to
disseminate information quickly about terrorist threats and other relatively
short-term conditions overseas which pose significant risks to the security of
American travelers. Free copies of this information are available by calling
the Bureau of Consular Affairs at 202-647-5225 or via the fax-on-demand system:
202-647-3000. Consular Information Sheets and Travel Warnings also are
available on the Consular Affairs Internet home page:
http://travel.state.gov. Consular Affairs
Tips for Travelers publication series, which contain information on obtaining
passports and planning a safe trip abroad are on the internet and hard copies
can be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing
Office, telephone: 202-512-1800; fax 202-512-2250.
Emergency information concerning Americans traveling abroad may be
obtained from the Office of Overseas Citizens Services at (202) 647-5225. For
after-hours emergencies, Sundays and holidays, call 202-647-4000.
Passport information can be obtained by calling the National
Passport Information Center's automated system ($.35 per minute) or live
operators 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. (EST) Monday-Friday ($1.05 per minute). The number
is 1-900-225-5674 (TDD: 1-900-225-7778). Major credit card users (for a flat
rate of $4.95) may call 1-888-362-8668 (TDD: 1-888-498-3648). It also is
available on the internet.
Travelers can check the latest health information with the U.S.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia. A hotline at
877-FYI-TRIP (877-394-8747) and a web site at
give the most recent health advisories, immunization recommendations or
requirements, and advice on food and drinking water safety for regions and
countries. A booklet entitled Health Information for International Travel (HHS
publication number CDC-95-8280) is available from the U.S. Government Printing
Office, Washington, DC 20402, tel. (202) 512-1800.
Information on travel conditions, visa requirements, currency and
customs regulations, legal holidays, and other items of interest to travelers
also may be obtained before your departure from a country's embassy and/or
consulates in the U.S. (for this country, see "Principal Government Officials"
listing in this publication).
U.S. citizens who are long-term visitors or traveling in dangerous
areas are encouraged to register at the U.S. embassy upon arrival in a country
(see "Principal U.S. Embassy Officials" listing in this publication). This may
help family members contact you in case of an emergency.
Further Electronic Information
Department of State Foreign Affairs Network. Available on
the Internet, DOSFAN provides timely, global access to official U.S. foreign
policy information. Updated daily, DOSFAN includes Background Notes; daily
press briefings; Country Commercial Guides; directories of key officers of
foreign service posts; etc. DOSFAN's World Wide Web site is at
U.S. Foreign Affairs on CD-ROM (USFAC). Published on an
annual basis by the U.S. Department of State, USFAC archives information on the
Department of State Foreign Affairs Network, and includes an array of official
foreign policy information from 1990 to the present. Contact the Superintendent
of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA
15250-7954. To order, call (202) 512-1800 or fax (202) 512-2250.
National Trade Data Bank (NTDB). Operated by the U.S.
Department of Commerce, the NTDB contains a wealth of trade-related
information. It is available on the Internet (www.stat-usa.gov) and on CD-ROM. Call the
NTDB Help-Line at (202) 482-1986 for more information.