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Appendix A

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Council on Sustainable  Development


The following goals and vision statement have been developed by the Eco-Efficiency Task Force (EETF) over several months of deliberation and are presented to the President's Council on Sustainable Development (PCSD) as a consensus product of the EETF. There are several key assumptions that underlie both the document and the consensus support of the members for the goals.

  • The six goals are presented as a comprehensive package. They are closely interrelated and are not designed to stand alone.

  • The goals are national in scope and are designed to provide for the maximum flexbility of all parties in achieving them.

  • The indicators of progress are designed to provide quantitative snapshots of the progress the country is making towards achieving the goals. They are not intended be "top-down" mandates and it is recognized that they may change over time as the country moves towards these goals and learns more about the science and policy options underlying them. Further, many of the indicators of progress are currently not measurable in any robust manner and will require a full and open developmental process to identify the measures as the necessary first step towards their utilization.*

In order to provide a context for the goals and to better define the ends they are designed achieve, the EETF developed the following vision statement:

The U.S. economy shall produce and use globally competitive goods and services while achieving environmental and social goals. This vision will result in a transition to an economy in which the constituents (e.g., people and businesses) provide for their needs and those of future generations through efficient and environmentally responsible practices.

* Since specific targets may vary between industries, the Task Force decided not to set specific numerical targets in some cases, as indicated "[" or "%."


Context Statement

Individuals, through their actions, choices, and decisions, have been and will continue to be the foundation upon which our society and economy are built. Therefore, eco-efficiency must become a widely held societal value in order to capture the significant societal, economic, and environmental improvements offered by sustainable development. Only when each individual and each sector (business, government, environmental organizations, academic institutions, labor, etc.) understand and value eco-efficiency will the full impact of the concept be realized.

To encourage and support broad, personal commitment to eco-efficiency a number of changes must occur. AR entities and individuals must strive to identify sources of environmental, economic, and social consequences associated with materials inputs, production processes, distribution, use, and subsequent management. This will require changes in the areas of: education; the management practices of all organizational entities; individual as well as community knowledge and involvement, and governmental regulatory, fiscal, and tax policies.


To act collectively and individually in ways that contribute to eco-efficiency and sustainable development through better understanding and communication of the environmental, economic, and social consequences of our actions.

Indicators of Progress

  • Primary and secondary school curriculum incorporating the concept of eco-efficiency will be developed by 2000. Such curriculum will be incorporated into the programs of [50%] of all schools by 2005 and [100%] of all schools by 2010.

  • Professional and continuing education curriculum incorporating the concept of eco-efficiency will be developed by 2000 and incorporated into all appropriate programs by 2010.

  • Individual consumer adoption of this goal will be aided and measured through
    A standardized product information system developed by 2000.

    An increase in the market share of eco-efficient products and/or those manufactured in a sustainable manner for each year through 2010 and achieving a majority of the category's market share by 2010.

  • To assure a closer working relationship between facilities (public and private) and communities, appropriate communication and involvement techniques and practices will be adopted by [25%] of all facilities by 2000 and by [50%] of all facilities by 2010.

  • Enviromnental management systems (including audits) appropriate to a facility will be adopted by [25%] of all facilities with over 10 employees by 2000 and [75%] of all facilities with over 10 employees by 2010.

  • By 2000, [50%] of all adults will have a basic understanding of the environmental, economic, and social consequences of their actions; by 2010, [75%] of adults win have this understanding; and by 2025, [90%] of adults will have this understanding.


Context Statement

Continued, long-term economic growth is essential to the prosperity of the United States and is fundamental to sustainable development. Maintaining this economic growth as the United States transitions to sustainability is a critical challenge. An important component of this transition is the inclusion of previously undervalued natural, environmental, and social resources into a new definition of economic well-being.


To maximize economic growth in the expanding global marketplace as measured through a newly established Sustainable National Product that fully accounts for social and environmental externalities.

Indicators of Progress

  • A Sustainable National Product and other indices that incorporate previously undervalued natural, environmental, and social resources into our nation's system of economic measurement will be formulated using the following timetable and process:

    Appropriate economic values for natural, environmental, and social resources determined by 2000.

    Complete implementation of a Sustainable National Product and other indices that incorporate previously undervalued natural, environmental, and social resources into our nation's systems of economic measurement by 2010.

    Contributions made to the development of internationally comparable measures of integrated economic, social, and environmental performance to be established among all nations by 2025.

  • Incorporation of the economic values of the natural, environmental, and social resources into the marketplace and government policies by 2010.

  • Until the Sustainable National Product and other measures are fully implemented, long-term economic growth will be measured by the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and will be, on average, [2.5%] while simultaneously meeting the other PCSD goals.


Context Statement

In the aggregate, cuffent use of materials and energy in the U.S. economy is not sustainable. Production and consumption of materials now account for large shares of U.S. energy use, waste, and pollution. For the U.S. economy to utilize resources on a sustainable basis will require efforts in the following two areas:

  • A national drive to change U.S. production and consumption patterns to reduce their overall environmental impact. This will include greatly improved energy efficiency, as well as much more efficient use of virgin materials in all economic sectors. The eventual goal of a drive to increase resource efficiency would be to reduce demand for energy and both renewable and nonrenewable materials to sustainable levels. Redesigning industrial processes, consumer products, and infrastructure for greater materials and energy efficiency will lead to recycling and reusing a much greater share of materials and goods-thereby alleviating the demand on virgin material inputs.

  • The practice of a strong environmental ethic that integrates economic efficiency and conservation (soil, air, water quality, biological diversity, aesthetics, etc.)


To efficiently produce and use globally competitive goods and services while reducing resource use to sustainable levels, thereby greatly reducing the adverse impacts on natural systems.

Indicators of Progress

  • Materials
    Reduced input of virgin materials per unit of output with resources used at sustainable levels. Sustainable levels should be determined for different classes of materials taking into account the sustainability of production systems, renewability capabilities of the resource, relative levels of recyclability and reusability, and overall environmental impacts by 2000 with subsequent five year updates and reviews of the standards.

    Increased market share of renewable and recoverable resources within sustainable levels: __% by 2000, __% by 2010, __% by 2025.

    Commodity-specific recycling and recovery rates established (for paper, plastic, metal, wood, organic materials, etc.), with careful consideration of the overall environmental impacts of replacing virgin materials in each scenario: __% by 2000, __% by 2010, __% by 2025.

    Per capita generation and disposal of household waste reduced from the current 4.4 pounds per person per day. (U.S. population projections for 2000, 2010, and 2025 are needed to set goals for per capita generation consistent with source reduction goals.)

  • Energy

    See the Energy and Transportation Task Force's goals document.

  • Research and Development
    Assessment of the development and application of technology that improves and accelerates the efficiency of materials production and use.

  • Water
    Adequate instream flows on major rivers and streams by 2000, and other significant water bodies of concem by 2010, necessary to support the ecosystem.

    Interbasin transfers of water discouraged by locating new projects only in areas where water resources are available to supply planned economic development within groundwater recharge rates and at rates that maintain minimum instream flows necessary to support the ecosystem.

    Water-saving measures instituted by developing incentive programs in targeted areas where water use exceeds groundwater recharge capability and minimum instream flows are not maintained. Incentives should be designed to help maintain water use at current levels until 2000, lower water use 10% by 2010, and achieve sustainable levels for each aquifer and watershed by 2025.


Context Statement

In the aggregate, the environmental burden created by U.S. economic activities is not sustainable. Improving environmental quality involves avoiding the creation of wastes and adopting practices that protect and enhance natural ecosystems. Many institutions and individuals have made significant progress in adopting environmentally responsible practices, while providing benefits to workers and communities and improving economic competitiveness. Institutions and individuals that address the environmental impacts of their activities as a priority in their decision-making processes will pave the way toward a new standard of responsibility. The approaches they have taken to reduce their environmental burdens must be encouraged, facilitated, and expanded to other institutions.


To attain a safe and clean environment by making pollution prevention, waste reduction, and product stewardship standard practice, such that all people and ecosystems are protected and economic and social well-being are enhanced.

Indicators of Progress

  • Determining SusWnability Levels
    By 2000, sustainable levels of environmental impacts shall be identified for all media and updated every five years or as required based on new scientific evidence.

  • Interim Waste Generation and Release Measures

In the interim, existing waste reduction and environmental protection efforts shall be measured with existing mechanisms and technologies, as follows.

Total national 1995 Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) releases reduced [20- 50%] by 2000.*

Total national 1995 TRI waste generation reduced [15-30%] by 2000.*

Overall industrial solid waste disposal and generation reduced [50%] by 2000 through source reduction, reuse, and recycling.**

Overall municipal solid waste disposal reduced [50%] by 2000 through source reduction, reuse, and recycling.*

[In order to cover all major areas or measures of environmental quality, the following three Indicators of Progress were added after the last EETF meeting. They have thus not been discussed explicitly with the full Task Force.]

Conventional air pollution reduced __% by 2000; __% by 2010; and __% by 2025.

Conventional water pollution reduced __% by 2000; __% by 2010; and __% by 2025.

Non-TRI emissions reduced __% by 2000; __% by 2010; and __% by 2025.

  • Product and Process Stewardship
    By 2000, every producer, customer, and marketer will be responsible for assessing and acting on the health and environmental consequences of their products and processes.

    By the year 2000, in the absence of compelling public health or safety needs, the release of heavy metals or toxic compounds that persist in the environment or accumulate in biological organisms shall be prevented. By 2010, the use of the most toxic substances should be eliminated, by developing cost-effective, equally productive, and less toxic alternatives.

    Assess the number of corporate and governmental institutions that have adopted decision-making processes and management systems, such as multimedia pollution prevention and life-cycle assessments, that minimize their overall environmental burden. [50%] of all institutions shall have such management systems by 2000; [90%] by 2010; and [100%] by 2025.

    *The numbers used in metrics 2C and 2D are based on information from the following sources: Source Reduction Research Partnership, Summary Report on the Potential for Source Reduction and Recycling of Halogenated Solvents (Pasadena, CA, 1992); U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, Serious Reduction of Hazardous Waste for Pollution and Industrial Efficiency, OTA-ITE-317 (Washington, DC, Govemment Printing Office, 1986.)

    Since specific targets may vary between industries, the Task Force decided not to set specific numerical targets in some cases as indicated by "[ ]" or "__%."


Context Statement

Social well-being is affected by the availability and quality of educational and job opportunities and the short- and long-range environmental, health, economic, and social impacts of employers on individuals and communities. To improve social well-being for all citizens and ensure that negative impacts are not bome disproportionately by any segment of society, institutions and individuals should strive to: 1) eliminate existing inequities, 2) maximize the quality and quantity of job opportunities, 3) minimize negative health impacts on workers, customers, and the community, 4) maximize communication among individuals at industrial facilities, local governments and other organizations, and the general public, and 5) include all social costs and benefits when detemiining the effects of facility expansions and shut-downs.


To increase the quality and quantity of job opportunities in all communities and protect the health of all people and ecosystems through appropriate government policies and efficient economic expansion.

Indicators of Progress

  • Disproportionate environmental burdens reduced __% by 2000; __% by 2010; and __% by 2025.

  • Idled or abandoned facilities and land restored to a reusable state: __% by 2000; __% by 2010; __% by 2025. (EPA, Dept. of Labor, Dept. of Commerce)

  • New job opportunities available: __% by 2000; __% by 2010; _-% by 2025. (Dept. of Labor, Dept. of Commerce)

    Employment rates increased: __% by 2000; __% by 2010; __% by 2025. (Dept. of Labor, Dept. of Commerce)

  • Literacy rates increased: __% by 2000; _% by 2010; and _% by 2025. (Dept. of Education)

  • Graduation rates in primary, secondary, and adult education programs increased: __% by 2000; __% by 2010; __% by 2025. (Dept. of Labor, Dept. of Education)

Context Statement

The current compliance-based regulatory system focusing on "end-of-the-pipe" emissions has produced many environmental benefits, but often has not provided the flexibility necessary to try alternative, more cost-effective methods throughout the lifecycle to achieve the desired results. In addition, this system has created administrative burdens for both government and industry. A new framework should be created that reorients the current system toward one that emphasizes a market-driven, incentive-based approach. It will be important to develop a positive reinforcement system to encourage all entities to reduce environmental impact throughout the lifecycle. Another key element of this framework would be a single multi-media system of regulation, with equivalent timelines for reaching goals in each medium. Under this new framework, government would set ambitious environmental performance goals and give regulated entities both adequate time to meet the goals and the flexibility to detemiine the most appropriate processes and technologies.


To enable government regulatory policies to achieve eco-efficiency goals in the most flexible, expeditious, cost-effective manner possible.

Indicators of Progress

  • By 2000, [50]% of all facilities will operate under a variety of market-based, multimedia, and/or performance-based arrangements.

  • The number of voluntary agreements between and among industrial sectors, government, and the public interest sector (including compacts, regulatory negotiations, etc.) will increase each year.

  • Federal and state permit processing and product registration times will be reduced to [90] days by 2000, without compromising environmental goals and while enhancing public participation.

  • By 2000, a measure shall be developed that assesses progress in increasing efficiency, decreasing the cost of complying with environmental regulations, and meeting environmental policy.

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Chapter 1

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Chapter 4



Appendix A