Area: 196,840 sq. km. (76,000 sq. mi.), about the size of South Dakota. Cities:Capital--Dakar. Other cities--Diourbel, Kolda, Kaolack, Louga, Saint-Louis, Thies,Tambacounda, Ziguinchor.
Terrain: Flat or rising to foothills.
Climate: Tropical/Sahelian--desert or grasslands in the north, heavier vegetationin the south and southeast.
Nationality: Noun and adjective--Senegalese (sing. and pl.).
Population (est. 1995): 8.2 million.
Annual growth rate: 3%.
Ethnic groups: Wolof 43%; Fulani (Peulh) and Toucouleur 23%; Serer 15%; Diola,Mandingo, and others 19%.
Religions: Muslim 95%, Christian 4%, traditional 1%.
Languages: French (official), Wolof, Pulaar, Serer, Diola, Mandingo, Soninke.
Education: Attendance--primary 58%, secondary 16%. Literacy--38%.
Health: Infant mortality rate--67/1,000. Life expectancy--50 yrs.
Work force (4.0 million): Agriculture--70% (subsistence or cash crops).
Wage earners (350,000): private sector 61%, government and parapublic 39%.
Independence: April 4, 1960.
Constitution: March 3, 1963, last amended in 1992.
Branches: Executive--president (chief of state, commander in chief of armedforces). Legislative -- National Assembly (single chamber with 120 deputies). Judicial --constitutional council (appointed by the president from senior magistrates and eminentacademics and attorneys), Court of Final Appeals, Council of State .
Administrative subdivisions: 10 regions, 30 departments, 138 arrondissements.
Political parties: 25 political parties are registered, the most important of whichare the Socialist Party (PS), the Democratic Party of Senegal (PDS), "ANDJEF/PADS", the Democratic League/Movement for a Labor Party (LD/MPT), theIndependence and Labor Party (PIT), and the Democratic and Patriotic Convention (CDP).
Suffrage: Universal adult, over 18.
Central government budget (1996): $977 million.
Defense (1996): $81.5 million.
National holiday: April 4, Independence Day.
Flag: Three vertical bands--green, yellow, red, with a green star centered in theyellow band.
GDP (1995): $5.1 billion.
Real annual growth rate: 4.5%.
Per capita GDP (1995): $550.
Natural resources: Fish, peanuts, phosphate, iron ore, gold, titanium.
Agriculture (24% of GDP): Products--peanuts, millet, sorghum, manioc, rice, cotton.
Industry (22% of GDP): Types--fishing; agricultural product processing; lightmanufacturing, mining including energy, oil mining, and construction: (18 % of GDP).
Services: 54% of GDP; including government: 65 % GDP.
Trade (1995): Exports--$967 million (fish products, peanut products, phosphaterock). Major markets--France, other European Community, West African CFA zone.Imports--$1.2 billion (food, consumer goods, petroleum, machinery, transport equipment,petroleum products, computer equipment). Major suppliers--France, Nigeria, Cameroon,United States.
Exchange rate: Fixed to French franc (FF)--African Financial Community (CFA) franc
100=1 FF; 1995. Average 515 F CFA=US$1.
Economic aid received (1995): $146 million from all sources, $26 million from theU.S.
Senegal lies on the bulge of western Africa, bounded by the Atlantic Ocean, Mauritania,Mali, Guinea, and Guinea-Bissau. The Gambia penetrates more than 320 kilometers (200 mi.)into Senegal. Well-defined dry and humid seasons result from northeast winter winds andsouthwest summer winds. Dakar's annual rainfall of about 61 centimeters (24 in.) occursbetween June and October when maximum temperatures average 27oC (82oF); December toFebruary minimum temperatures are about 17oC (63oF). Interior temperatures are higher thanalong the coast, and rainfall increases substantially farther south, exceeding 150centimeters (60 in.) annually in some areas.
About 70% of Senegal's population is rural. In rural areas, density varies from about77 per square kilometer (200 per sq. mi.) in the west-central region to 2 per squarekilometer (5 per sq. mi.) in the arid eastern section. About 50,000 Europeans (mostlyFrench) and Lebanese reside in Senegal, mainly in the cities. French is the officiallanguage but is used regularly only by the literate minority. All Senegalese speak anindigenous language, of which Wolof has the largest usage.
Archaeological findings throughout the area indicate that Senegal was inhabited inprehistoric times. Islam established itself in the Senegal River valley in the 11thcentury--95% of Senegalese today are Muslims. In the 13th and 14th centuries, the areacame under the influence of the great Mandingo empires to the east; the Jolof Empire ofSenegal also was founded during this time.
In January 1959, Senegal and the French Soudan merged to form the Mali Federation,which became fully independent on June 20, 1960, as a result of the independence and thetransfer of power agreement signed with France on April 4, 1960. Due to internal politicaldifficulties, the Federation broke up on August 20, 1960. Senegal and Soudan (renamed theRepublic of Mali) each proclaimed separate independence. Leopold Sedar Senghor,internationally renowned poet, politician, and statesman, was elected Senegal's firstpresident in August 1960.
After the breakup of the Mali Federation, President Senghor and Prime Minister MamadouDia governed together under a parliamentary system. In December 1962, their politicalrivalry led to an attempted coup by Prime Minister Dia. Although this was put down withoutbloodshed, Dia was arrested and imprisoned, and Senegal adopted a new constitution. Diawas released in 1974.
Since assuming the presidency in 1981, Abdou Diouf has encouraged broader politicalparticipation, reduced government involvement in the economy, and widened Senegal'sdiplomatic engagements, particularly with other developing nations. Despite chroniceconomic problems, tempestuous domestic politics, which have on occasion spilled over intostreet violence, border tensions and a violent separatist movement in the southern regionof the Casamance, Senegal's commitment to democracy and human rights appears reasonablystrong in its fourth decade of independence.
GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS
Senegal is a republic with a strong presidency, weak legislature, reasonablyindependent judiciary, and multiple political parties. The president is elected byuniversal adult suffrage to a seven-year term. The unicameral National Assembly has 120members, elected separately from the president. The Court of Cessation and theconstitutional council, the justices of which are named by the president, are the nation'shighest tribunals. Senegal is divided into 10 administrative regions, each headed by agovernor appointed by and responsible to the president. The law on decentralizationdevolving significant central government authorities to regional assemblies came intoeffect in January 1997 following local elections held in November 1996.
Senegal's principal political party is the Socialist Party (name changed fromSenegalese Progressive Union in 1976 after having joined the Socialist International),founded in 1949 by Leopold Senghor and now led by President Diouf. The Socialist Party,which has governed Senegal since independence in 1960, has advocated a moderate form ofsocialism based on traditional African concepts but increasingly has sought to encourageprivate enterprise, including foreign investment. Leopold Senghor was elected Senegal'sfirst president in 1960 and served continuously until he stepped down in mid-term in 1980.In accordance with the constitution, Prime Minister Abdou Diouf succeeded Senghor aspresident. Diouf was elected to full five-year terms in his own right in 1983 and 1988.The constitution, which previously restricted the number of political parties to four, wasamended in 1981 to legitimize previously unrecognized parties. The number of parties nowstands at 25 of which several participated in the November 1996 regional and localelections. There are 120 seats in the National Assembly. The last national elections wereheld on February 21 and May 9, 1993. President Diouf was reelected for a 7-year term.
Principal Government Officials
President of the Republic--Abdou Diouf
President of the National Assembly--Cheikh Abdou Khadre Cissokho
President of the Constitutional Council--Youssoupha Ndiaye
Prime Minister--Habib Thiam
Minister of State Without Portfolio--Abdoulaye Wade
Minister of State and Minister of Foreign Affairs--Moustapha Niasse
Minister of State for Presidential Affairs--Ousmane Tanor Dieng
Minister of State for Agriculture--Robert Sanga
Minister of Armed Forces--Cheikh Hamidou Kane
Minister of Interior-Lamine Cisse
Minister of Justice--Jacques Baudin
Minister of Economy, Finance and Planning-Lamine Loum
Minister of National Education--Andre Sonko
Minister of Equipment, Road transport, and Housing--Landing Sane
Minister of Industry and Mining--Magued Diouf
Minister of Health and Social Affairs--Ousmame Ngom
Minister of Commerce, Artisanry, and Industrialization--Idrissa Seck
Ambassador to the United States--General Mansour Seck
Ambassador to the United Nations--Ibra Deguene Ka
Senegal maintains an embassy in the United States at 2112 Wyoming Avenue, NW.,Washington, DC 20008 (tel. 202-234-0540), and a Mission to the United
Nations at 392 Fifth Avenue, 9th floor, New York, NY 10018 (tel. 212-517-9030).
The former capital of French West Africa, Senegal is a semi-arid country located on thewesternmost point of Africa. Its economy is dominated by agriculture, particularly bypeanut production. The modern sector includes fishing, phosphates, tourism, and chemicalindustries. Senegal's economy is highly vulnerable to declining rainfall, desertification,and changes in world commodity prices.
The January 1994 devaluation of the CFA franc was an explicit condition set by theInternational Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank for resumption of financing foreconomic adjustment. Senegal's adjustment efforts were funded primarily by a stand-byagreement from the IMF, which was replaced, in August 1994, by a three-year enhancedstructural adjustment facility for U.S. $192 million.
The World Bank also supported Senegal under an economic recovery credit, a privatesector adjustment and competitiveness credit and an agricultural sector adjustment credit.Senegal also benefited from assistance from other multilateral and bilateral donors,including debt rescheduling from the Paris Club and other creditors. At the consultativegroup meeting in Paris in July 1995--the first sponsored by the World Bank since1987--Senegal received pledges of about U.S. $1.5 billion for program and project aid forthe period of 1995-97, which completely covered the 1995 financing gap.
Macroeconomic indicators show that Senegal has turned in a respectable performance inmeeting the targets set under the IMF's ESAF program: annual GDP growth has improved from2.3% in 1994 to reach 4.5% in 1995. Inflation has reported to be 8% in 1995 compared to36% in 1994, and the fiscal deficit has held to 3.3% of GDP.
During 1995, Senegal made some encouraging progress in the implementation of structuraladjustment policies aimed at creating a better regulatory framework for private sectordevelopment. Measures implemented to date include the:
--Elimination of barriers to free domestic trade (price liberalization of soap, milk,coffee, soft drinks, cement, tomato paste, and fresh tomatoes);
--Abolition of monopolistic agreements in major industries (cement, textiles, wheatflour, tomato paste, packing materials, and fertilizers.);
--Elimination of export subsidies;
--Liberalization of rice and sugar imports;
--Abolition of the requirement for prior government authorization to lay off workersduring economic downturns; and
--Preparation of a list of 18 major public enterprises to be privatized during the nextthree years.
Senegal's economy is principally agricultural, with more than 70% of the labor forceengaged in farming. Peanut production accounts for half of agricultural output, and foodcrops, especially millet, rice, corn, sorghum, and beans, currently provide abouttwo-thirds of the country's food needs. Export earnings from peanut oil and peanut cakehave increased slightly since the January 1994 CFA devaluation. The government hasinvested heavily in the Senegal River basin with the aim of moving Senegal closer to foodself-sufficiency.
The fishing sector has replaced the groundnut sector as Senegal's export leader. Itsexport earnings reached $274 million in 1995. The industrial fishing operations strugglewith high costs and Senegalese tuna is rapidly losing the French market to more efficientAsian competitors.
Phosphate production, the third major foreign exchange earner, has been steady at about$33 million. Receipts from tourism, the fourth major foreign exchange earner, have pickedup since the January 1994 devaluation.
Senegal has met with limited success in attracting foreign investment to hasteneconomic development. Under the provisions of the 1987 investment code, the approvalprocess has been shortened. Currently, there are no restrictions on the transfer orrepatriation of capital and income earned, or investment financed with convertible foreignexchange. Direct U.S. investment in Senegal remains about $38 million, mainly in petroleummarketing, pharmaceuticals manufacturing, chemicals, and banking. Economic assistance,about $350 million a year, comes largely from France, the IMF, the World Bank, and theUnited States. Assistance also is provided by Canada, Italy, Japan, Germany, and others.
Senegal has relatively good infrastructure. It includes well-developed though costlyport facilities, a major international airport serving 24 international airlines,including scheduled service by U.S. firm world airways in its Newark, NJ-Johannesburgroute, and direct and expanding telecommunications links with major world centers.
Senegal enjoys an excellent relationship with the United States. The Government ofSenegal is known and respected for its able diplomats and has often supported the U.S. inthe United Nations, including with troop contributions for peacekeeping activities. TheUnited States maintains friendly relations with Senegal and provides considerable economicand technical assistance. President Diouf paid his first official visit to Washington,D.C., in August 1983 and has traveled several times to the U.S. since then. Senegal hostedthe Second African-African American Summit in 1995. First Lady Hillary Rodham Clintonbegan her trip to Africa in March 1997 with a visit to Senegal.
The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) implements the U.S. Government'sdevelopment assistance efforts, providing program assistance linked to reforms in finance,agriculture, and natural resource management. USAID provides project assistance in thefields of health and family planning, agriculture and natural resources (includingforestry), and market liberalization. The primary development goal of the U.S. Governmentin Senegal is to help raise the per capita incomes of those people in Senegal whoseincomes depend on the sustainable exploitation of natural resources. USAID provided$23-million in program (including food aid) and project assistance to Senegal in fiscalyear 1995. The Peace Corps program in Senegal involves 122 volunteers, engaged inforestry, health, and small business development. The cultural exchange program consistsof three Fulbright professors and about 20-30 international visitor grants per year.
Principal U.S. Officials
Ambassador Designate--Dane Smith
Deputy Chief of Mission--James Ledesma
USAID Director--Anne Williams
Public Affairs Officer (USIS)--Gerald Huchel
Peace Corps Director--Patrick Barry
Defense Attache--Lt. Col. Paul Cariker
Political Counselor-David G. Wagner
Economic Officer--Whitney Young-Baird
Consular Officer--Lili Ming
Administrative Counselor-Mark Stevens
The U.S. Embassy in Senegal is located on Ave. Jean XXIII at the intersection of Ave.Kleber, (P.O. Box 49), Dakar.
These materials were prepared and released by the U.S. Department of State, Office ofSouthern African Affairs. For more information, visit the State Department's homepage.